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Table 1 Demographic and clinical variables related to cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy

From: The association between glycemic variability and diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes

  Type 2 diabetes  
No CAN (n = 63) CAN (n = 47) p value
Age (years) 59.5 ± 8.6 56.3 ± 8.1 0.055
Men/Women (%) 40/23 (64/36) 32/15 (68/32) 0.616
Body mass index (kg/m2) 25.7 ± 3.2 25.0 ± 2.9 0.225
Duration of diabetes (years) 11.7 ± 7.1 14.2 ± 7.2 0.076
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 126.9 ± 16.8 127.5 ± 15.1 0.851
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 77.3 ± 10.5 77.1 ± 8.8 0.894
Lipid profile (mg/dL)    
  Total cholesterol 155.7 ± 30.8 156.6 ± 33.6 0.885
  Triglyceride 116.4 ± 62.0 134.1 ± 61.1 0.139
  HDL-C 49.1 ± 11.3 46.3 ± 10.0 0.176
  LDL-C 87.4 ± 23.8 90.5 ± 29.4 0.551
C-peptide (ng/mL) 2.3 ± 1.1 2.0 ± 1.1 0.108
eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) 83.5 ± 21.5 89.4 ± 19.3 0.142
Use of insulin, n (%) 16 (25) 25 (53) 0.003
Use of oral anti-diabetic drug, n (%) 55 (87) 40 (85) 0.740
  Metformin, n (%) 48 (76) 39 (83) 0.386
  Sulfonylurea, n (%) 24 (38) 16 (34) 0.662
  Thiazolidinedione, n (%) 9 (14) 0 (0) 0.014
  Glinide, n (%) 5 (8) 2 (4) 0.434
  DPP 4 inhibitor, n (%) 22 (35) 17 (44) 0.892
  α-glucosidase inhibitor, n (%) 15 (24) 9 (19) 0.558
Use of lipid-lowering agents, n (%) 46 (73) 36 (77) 0.670
Use of anti-hypertensive therapy, n (%) 47 (75) 32 (68) 0.452
  ACE inhibitor or ARB, n (%) 51 (68) 25 (71) 0.717
  CCB, n (%) 17 (27) 8 (17) 0.217
  Thiazide, n (%) 6 (9.5) 6 (12.8) 0.589
  Beta-blocker, n (%) 9 (14) 6 (12) 0.818
Use of aspirin, n (%) 32 (51) 22 (47) 0.679
Smoking (ex- or current smoker), n (%) 23 (37) 17 (36) 0.971
  1. Data are mean ± SD, median (25th to 75th percentile) or percent
  2. CAN cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy, HDL-C high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, LDL-C low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, DPP-4 dipeptidyl peptidase-4, ARB antiotensin receptor blocker, CCB calcium channel blocker