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Table 1 General characteristics of the study population (n = 532) according to tertiles of 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 and month-specific tertiles of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3

From: Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels are independently associated with macroalbuminuria, but not with retinopathy and macrovascular disease in type 1 diabetes: the EURODIAB prospective complications study

  25-hydroxyvitamin D2 25-hydroxyvitamin D3
  T1 (n = 177, 0.08-1.19 nmol/L) T2 (n = 178, 1.20-2.09 nmol/L) T3 (n = 177, 2.10-20.2 nmol/L) T1 (n = 177, 8–86 nmol/L)d T2 (n = 177, 27–100 nmol/L)d T3 (n = 178, 43–169 nmol/L)d
Age (years) 40.5 ± 10.5 39.0 ± 9.8 39.2 ± 10.0 40.9 ± 10.4 39.5 ± 10.3 38.2 ± 9.4
Male sex (%) 51 47 55 53 52 49
Body mass index (kg/m2) 24.5 ± 3.4 24.7 ± 3.1 24.3 ± 3.3 24.7 ± 3.7 24.5 ± 3.1 24.2 ± 2.8
HbA1c (%) (mmol/mol) 8.7 ± 1.7 (72 ± 19) 8.5 ± 1.7 (69 ± 19) 8.5 ± 1.5 (69 ± 16) 9.0 ± 1.8 (75 ± 20) 8.4 ± 1.5 (68 ± 16) 8.2 ± 1.5 (66 ± 16)
Duration of diabetes (years) 22.9 ± 9.0 20.5 ± 9.7 20.9 ± 9.3 22.8 ± 9.2 22.2 ± 9.9 19.4 ± 8.8
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 5.4 ± 1.4 5.4 ± 1.1 5.1 ± 1.1 5.4 ± 1.3 5.2 ± 1.1 5.3 ± 1.2
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 3.2 ± 1.2 3.1 ± 1.0 3.2 ± 1.0 3.2 ± 1.1 3.1 ± 1.0 3.2 ± 1.1
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.6 ± 0.5 1.6 ± 0.4 1.6 ± 0.4 1.6 ± 0.4 1.6 ± 0.4 1.7 ± 0.4
Total-HDL-cholesterol-ratio 3.7 ± 1.3 3.5 ± 1.4 3.3 ± 1.0 3.7 ± 1.5 3.4 ± 1.1 3.3 ± 1.1
Triacylglycerols (mmol/L) 1.0 (0.8-1.4) 1.0 (0.7-1.4) 0.9 (0.7-1.2) 1.0 (0.7-1.5) 1.0 (0.8-1.4) 0.9 (0.7-1.2)
Smoking (never/ex/current, %) 39/32/29 39/32/29 42/24/34 37/28/35 42/30/28 41/30/29
Physical activity (0/≤mediana/>median, %) 68/17/15 59/20/21 60/21/19 74/14/12 63/20/17 50/25/25
Alcohol intake (0/≤70 g per wk/>70 g per wk, %) 16/53/31 19/53/28 10/57/33 21/53/26 13/56/31 10/55/35
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 127 ± 22 121 ± 19 120 ± 18 125 ± 21 121 ± 20 123 ± 18
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 76 ± 11 75 ± 12 74 ± 11 76 ± 12 73 ± 11 76 ± 11
Use of antihypertensive medication (%) 45 31 19 36 33 26
Use of hormone replacement therapy (% women) 14 11 10 11 8 15
Use of oral contraceptive therapy (% women) 39 42 47 27 49 50
Estimated glomerular filtration rate (mL/min) 97 (77–109) 103 (88–114) 104 (91–113) 102 (82–112) 102 (86–112) 101 (89–112)
C-reactive protein (mg/L) 1.1 (0.5-2.7) 1.0 (0.4-2.5) 1.1 (0.4-2.4) 1.4 (0.5-3.5) 0.9 (0.4-2.3) 0.9 (0.4-2.4)
Interleukin-6 (pg/mL) 2.1 (1.5-4.0) 1.8 (1.1-3.0) 1.8 (1.2-3.1) 2.3 (1.5-4.4) 1.9 (1.2-3.0) 1.6 (1.1-2.8)
Tumour necrosis factor-α (pg/mL) 3.2 (2.3-4.6) 2.7 (2.0-3.3) 2.6 (2.0-3.2) 3.1 (2.2-4.3) 2.7 (2.1-3.5) 2.7 (2.1-3.4)
Low-grade inflammation score (SD)b 0.27 ± 1.00 −0.13 ± 0.99 −0.14 ± 0.97 0.26 ± 1.10 −0.11 ± 0.87 −0.14 ± 0.97
Soluble E-selectin (ng/mL) 36 ± 20 32 ± 11 35 ± 12 36 ± 16 35 ± 16 32 ± 13
Soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ng/mL) 451 ± 174 391 ± 97 387 ± 98 438 ± 169 399 ± 106 393 ± 103
Endothelial dysfunction score (SD)c 0.30 ± 1.32 −0.22 ± 0.74 −0.08 ± 0.76 0.21 ± 1.15 −0.04 ± 0.97 −0.17 ± 0.82
Albuminuria (normo/micro/macro, %) 45/13/42 65/17/18 73/17/10 52/14/34 58/20/22 74/13/13
Retinopathy (none/non-proliferative/proliferative, %) 34/30/36 49/27/24 49/25/26 34/33/33 44/28/28 54/21/25
Cardiovascular disease (%) 21 29 24 28 27 20
25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (nmol/L) 0.8 (0.6-1.0) 1.5 (1.4-1.8) 2.8 (2.4-3.9) 1.4 (0.9-2.5) 1.6 (1.1-2.4) 1.6 (1.1-2.4)
25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (nmol/L) 46 (28–73) 58 (37–75) 49 (33–74) 27 (21–38) 48 (39–67) 77 (62–98)
  1. Data are presented as means ± SD, medians (interquartile range) or percentages, as appropriate. asex-specific medians for physical activity were 11.3 MET-h/week for men and 6.8 MET-h/week for women; bthe low-grade inflammation score was calculated as the mean Z-score of ln-transformed values of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α; cthe endothelial dysfunction score was calculated as the mean Z-score of soluble E-selectin and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1; dranges of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations overlap between tertiles as tertiles were defined month-specifically (see Methods section)