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Table 1 Clinical and biochemical characteristics of the study subjects

From: Normal-weight obesity is associated with increased risk of subclinical atherosclerosis

  Entire population n = 2078 NWL n = 1795 NWO n = 283 P-value
Age (yr) 53.4 ± 9.2 52.8 ± 9.2 57.6 ± 8.2 <0.001
Male (n, %) 1141 (54.9) 1026 (57.2) 115 (40.6) <0.001
Smoking status     0.003
 Current smoker (n, %) 369 (17.8) 332 (18.5) 37 (13.1)  
 Ex-smoker (n, %) 557 (29.1) 494 (27.5) 63 (22.3)  
 Non-smoker (n, %) 1152 (55.4) 969 (54.0) 183 (64.7)  
Systolic BP (mmHg) 123.4 ± 15.6 122.5 ± 15.5 128.6 ± 15.7 <0.001
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 77.0 ± 10.1 76.6 ± 10.1 79.6 ± 9.3 <0.001
BMI 22.37 ± 1.7 22.53 ± 4.3 23.9 ± 0.8 <0.001
Body fat percentage (%) 24.4 ± 4.8 23.5 ± 4.3 30.1 ± 3.4 <0.001
Visceral fat (kg) 1.9 ± 0.5 1.75 ± 0.5 2.50 ± 0.4 <0.001
Subcutaneous fat (kg) 12.9 ± 2.5 12.5 ± 2.2 16.0 ± 1.6 <0.001
Fasting glucose (mg/dL) 96.1 ± 17.3 95.7 ± 17.5 99.1 ± 15.9 0.004
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 193.5 ± 34.8 192.5 ± 34.6 199.6 ± 35.5 0.017
Triglyceride (mg/dL) 107.8 ± 64.9 106.4 ± 65.1 116.6 ± 63.3 <0.001
HDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) 50.8 ± 12.7 51.0 ± 12.8 49.6 ± 11.3 0.002
LDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) 118.0 ± 30.9 117.1 ± 30.6 123.9 ± 32.2 0.002
ALT (IU/L) 22.5 ± 17.35 21.9 ± 17.5 26.4 ± 15.87 <0.001
CRP (mg/L) 1.2 ± 2.0 1.2 ± 2.0 1.6 ± 2.3 0.003
Hypertension (n, %) 697 (33.5) 555 (30.9) 142 (50.2) <0.001
Diabetes mellitus (n, %) 221 (10.6) 184 (10.3) 37 (13.1) 0.656
BP medication (n, %) 409 (19.7) 319 (17.8) 90 (31.8) <0.001
Diabetes medication (n, %) 145 (7.0) 118 (6.6) 27 (9.5) 0.677
Lipid lowering agent (n, %) 214 (10.3) 169 (9.4) 45 (15.9) 0.181
Antiplatelet agent (n, %) 223 (10.7) 186 (10.4) 37 (13.1) 0.971
Fatty liver (n, %) 671 (32.3) 531 (29.6) 140 (49.5) <0.001
Alcohol intake (cup/month) 32.4 ± 11.8 34.0 ± 64.2 22.03 ± 48.4 0.867
Excessive salt intake (n, %) 459 (25.1) 395 (25.0) 64 (25.6) 0.283
Physical activity (n, %) 1432 (73.7) 1245 (74.5) 187 (69.0) 0.049
  1. NWO normal weight obesity, NWL normal weight lean, BP blood pressure, BMI body mass index, HDL-cholesterol high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, ALT alanine transaminase, CRP C-reactive protein. The difference of age, sex and smoking status between the NWL and the NWO subjects was analyzed with either Student’s t-test or χ2-test as appropriate. The difference of all other variables was analyzed with analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) using age, sex, and smoking status as covariates. Continuous variables are presented as mean ± standard deviation. Dichotomous variables are presented as the number of subjects with the percentage of subjects in the parenthesis