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Table 1 Baseline characteristics and laboratory investigations

From: Low fasting glucose is associated with enhanced thrombin generation and unfavorable fibrin clot properties in type 2 diabetic patients with high cardiovascular risk

  LOWER glucose group (<4.5 mmol/l) N = 38 MEDIUM glucose group (4.5-6.0 mmol/l) N = 52 HIGHER glucose group (>6.0 mmol/l) N = 75 P-value
Female, n (%) 15 (39.5) 27 (51.9) 30 (40.0) 0.35
Age, yrs 67 (59–72) 68 (63–73) 66 (59–73) 0.63
Weight, kg 86 (75–100) 84 (75–92) 86 (78–95) 0.24
Height, cm 169 (163–175) 165 (158–170) 168 (158–173) 0.11
BMI, kg/m2 30.8 (26.1-33.7) 31.4 (27.5-35.8) 31.9 (28.4-36.1) 0.17
Waist, cm 107 (93–112) 106 (98–112) 107 (99–113) 0.90
Hip, cm 109 (99–116) 109 (102–115) 109 (104–116) 0.85
Duration of DM, yrs 8 (3–10) 5 (3–7) 5 (3–11) 0.10
CAD, n (%) 24 (63.2) 33 (63.5) 43 (57.3) 0.74
Previous MI, n (%) 9 (23.7) 7 (13.5) 10 (13.3) 0.31
Hypertension, n (%) 35 (92.1) 49 (94.2) 74 (98.7) 0.21
Current smoking, n (%) 4 (10.5) 3 (5.8) 7 (9.3) 0.69
History of smoking, n (%) 17 (44.7) 25 (48.1) 36 (48.0) 0.94
Family history of CAD, n (%) 15 (39.5) 13 (25.0) 16 (21.3) 0.11
Retinopathy, n (%) 4 (10.5) 7 (13.5) 13 (17.3) 0.61
Nephropathy, n (%) 10 (26.3) 4 (7.7) 14 (18.7) 0.06
Neuropathy, n (%) 13 (34.2) 9 (17.3) 13 (17.3) 0.08
Pharmacotherapy
Sulphonylourea, n (%) 17 (44.7) 23 (44.2) 30 (40.0) 0.85
Biguanide, n (%) 23 (60.5) 35 (67.3) 48 (64.0) 0.80
Insulin therapy, n (%) 15 (39.5) 5 (9.6) 24 (32.0) 0.002
Beta-blocker, n (%) 26 (68.4) 39 (75.0) 63 (84.0) 0.15
ACEI, n (%) 30 (78.9) 35 (67.3) 56 (74.7) 0.44
Calcium antagonist, n (%) 14 (36.8) 21 (40.4) 25 (33.3) 0.72
Clopidogrel, n (%) 1 (2.6) 4 (7.7) 4 (5.3) 0.58
Aspirin, n (%) 33 (86.8) 39 (75.0) 61 (81.3) 0.37
Statin, n (%) 35 (92.1) 43 (82.7) 57 (76.0) 0.11
Laboratory results
FBG mmol/l 4 (3.6-4.2) 5.35 (4.9-5.7) 7.3 (6.4-8.3) <0.0001
HbA1c, % 6.7 (6.1-7.3) 6.2 (6.0-6.7) 6.8 (6.3-7.6) 0.0002
HbA1c, mmol/mol 50 (43–56) 44 (42–50) 51 (45–60) 0.0002
WBC, x109/L 6.5 (5.2-7.9) 7.1 (6.2-8.2) 7.3 (6.2-7.9) 0.23
Hemoglobin, g/dL 13.5 (12.9-14.5) 13.8 (13.2-14.4) 13.7 (13.0-14.6) 0.64
Hematocrit, % 43.0 (39.0-46.0) 41.7 (39.9-43.3) 41.2 (39.1-43.2) 0.07
Platelet count, x109/L 227 (176–252) 206 (172–252) 216 (186–266) 0.61
INR 0.99 (0.96-1.08) 0.98 (0.95-1.03) 0.98 (0.94-1.02) 0.18
Creatinine, μmol/L 76 (66–91) 81 (63–92) 79 (66–98) 0.56
Alat, IU/L 21 (12–27) 20 (13–29) 22 (16–30) 0.10
Aspat, IU/L 24 (18–28) 20 (16–25) 20 (18–26) 0.62
TC, mmol/L 4.17 (3.42-4.98) 4.20 (3.51-5.04) 4.43 (3.68-5.32) 0.10
LDL-C cholesterol, mmol/L 2.20 (1.71-2.80) 2.26 (1.92-3.04) 2.57 (2.06-3.41) 0.16
HDL-C cholesterol, mmol/L 1.11 (0.88-1.35) 1.40 (1.18-1.62) 1.35 (1.08-1.59) 0.08
TG, mmol/L 1.16 (0.94-1.80) 1.31 (0.92-1.56) 1.48 (1.01-1.96) 0.37
hsCRP, mg/dl 2.57 (0.89-5.01) 1.85 (1.02-3.21) 2.29 (1.04-5.08) 0.31
  1. Values are given as mean ± SD, median (interquartile range).
  2. Abbreviations: ACEI, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor; Alat, alanine transaminase; Aspat, aspartate transaminase; BMI, body mass index; CAD, coronary artery disease; FBG, fasting blood glucose; hsCRP, high sensitivity C-reactive protein; DM, diabetes mellitus; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; INR, International normalized ratio; MI, myocardial infarction; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; TC, total cholesterol; TG, triglycerides; WBC, white blood cells.