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Table 6 HRs of IS or TIA associated with potential risk factors, overall and stratified by eGFR category

From: Cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in a cohort of 57,946 patients with type 2 diabetes: associations with renal function and cardiovascular risk factors

  Non–IS/TIA IS/TIA   eGFR category
  n = 54,161 n = 3785 Overall 15–29 mL/min 30–44 mL/min 45–59 mL/min ≥60 mL/min
  Number (%) Number (%) HR a (95% CI) HR b (95% CI) HR b (95% CI) HR b (95% CI) HR b (95% CI)
Sex
  Men 30,055 (55.5) 2062 (54.5) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−)
  Women 24,106 (44.5) 1723 (45.5) 0.95 (0.89–1.02) 1.52 (0.94–2.46) 1.07 (0.85–1.33) 0.91 (0.80–1.04) 0.93 (0.86–1.02)
Age at start date (years)
  20–49 5614 (10.4) 109 (2.9) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−)
  50–74 35,722 (66.0) 2350 (62.1) 2.83 (2.32–3.43) 0.82 (0.53–1.25) 0.74 (0.60–0.92) 1.54 (0.80–2.99) 2.76 (2.25–3.39)
  ≥75 12,825 (23.7) 1326 (35.0) 5.33 (4.35–6.54) 1 (−) 1 (−) 2.69 (1.38–5.24) 5.95 (4.77–7.42)
Duration of diabetes (years)
  <5 24,591 (45.4) 1458 (38.5) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−)
  5–9 15,945 (29.4) 1178 (31.1) 1.12 (1.04–1.21) 0.99 (0.58–1.69) 1.10 (0.85–1.42) 1.12 (0.96–1.30) 1.12 (1.01–1.23)
  10–14 7874 (14.5) 629 (16.6) 1.16 (1.06–1.28) 0.73 (0.37–1.43) 1.05 (0.78–1.42) 1.14 (0.95–1.37) 1.20 (1.06–1.36)
  ≥15 5751 (10.6) 520 (13.7) 1.27 (1.15–1.41) 1.26 (0.72–2.22) 1.35 (1.01–1.82) 1.15 (0.94–1.41) 1.29 (1.13–1.48)
BMI (kg/m2)
  15–19 851 (1.6) 64 (1.7) 1.18 (0.91–1.52) 1.26 (0.29–5.55) 1.65 (0.82–3.34) 1.44 (0.89–2.33) 0.98 (0.69–1.39)
  20–24 8894 (16.4) 652 (17.2) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−)
  25–29 19,554 (36.1) 1457 (38.5) 1.01 (0.92–1.10) 0.71 (0.38–1.32) 1.09 (0.80–1.47) 1.13 (0.93–1.36) 0.97 (0.86–1.09)
  ≥30 21,625 (39.9) 1334 (35.2) 0.93 (0.84–1.02) 0.70 (0.39–1.27) 1.03 (0.75–1.40) 1.10 (0.91–1.34) 0.86 (0.76–0.98)
  Unknown 3237 (6.0) 278 (7.3) 1.24 (1.07–1.43) 1.31 (0.63–2.69) 1.45 (0.96–2.18) 1.40 (1.06–1.85) 1.11 (0.91–1.36)
Smoking status
  Non–smoker 28,212 (52.1) 1963 (51.9) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−)
  Current 9463 (17.5) 665 (17.6) 1.19 (1.09–1.30) 0.74 (0.33–1.65) 1.20 (0.88–1.64) 1.13 (0.94–1.37) 1.24 (1.11–1.38)
  Former 14,046 (25.9) 965 (25.5) 1.03 (0.95–1.11) 1.09 (0.66–1.81) 0.80 (0.62–1.04) 0.91 (0.78–1.07) 1.12 (1.01–1.24)
  Unknown 2440 (4.5) 192 (5.1) 1.06 (0.91–1.24) 1.66 (0.81–3.40) 1.17 (0.75–1.83) 1.14 (0.85–1.54) 0.97 (0.79–1.20)
Number of medications
  0–1 14,249 (26.3) 758 (20.0) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−)
  2–4 19,205 (35.5) 1253 (33.1) 1.14 (1.04–1.25) 1.48 (0.68–3.23) 1.02 (0.72–1.46) 1.17 (0.97–1.41) 1.12 (1.00–1.25)
  5–9 17,266 (31.9) 1414 (37.4) 1.28 (1.16–1.40) 1.06 (0.51–2.20) 1.11 (0.80–1.54) 1.16 (0.97–1.40) 1.34 (1.20–1.51)
  ≥10 3441 (6.4) 360 (9.5) 1.65 (1.44–1.89) 1.15 (0.50–2.62) 1.42 (0.96–2.09) 1.77 (1.38–2.27) 1.64 (1.36–1.97)
HbA1c (%)
  <7.00 18,214 (33.6) 1168 (30.9) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−)   1 (−)
  7.00–7.99 12,029 (22.2) 794 (21.0) 1.02 (0.93–1.12) 1.56 (0.89–2.74) 0.95 (0.72–1.25) 0.96 (0.81–1.14) 1.04 (0.92–1.17)
  8.00–8.99 6730 (12.4) 491 (13.0) 1.12 (1.00–1.24) 0.72 (0.31–1.63) 1.17 (0.83–1.63) 0.93 (0.75–1.15) 1.22 (1.06–1.39)
  9.00–9.99 4297 (7.9) 337 (8.9) 1.30 (1.15–1.47) 1.15 (0.46–2.87) 1.24 (0.84–1.83) 1.32 (1.03–1.68) 1.33 (1.14–1.56)
  ≥10.00 4474 (8.3) 324 (8.6) 1.33 (1.17–1.51) 1.17 (0.53–2.58) 0.72 (0.42–1.24) 1.13 (0.86–1.48) 1.52 (1.31–1.77)
  Missing 8417 (15.5) 671 (17.7) 1.20 (1.09–1.33) 1.36 (0.77–2.41) 0.96 (0.72–1.30) 1.15 (0.96–1.39) 1.28 (1.13–1.44)
Comorbiditiesc
  Hypertension 30,384 (56.1) 2368 (62.6) 1.07 (1.00–1.14) 0.81 (0.52–1.28) 1.06 (0.84–1.33) 1.09 (0.95–1.25) 1.07 (0.98–1.16)
  Hyperlipidemia 3648 (6.7) 350 (9.2) 1.23 (1.09–1.39) 1.79 (1.15–2.79) 1.42 (1.10–1.82) 1.21 (0.98–1.48) 1.17 (0.96–1.43)
  History of MI 5134 (9.5) 447 (11.8) 0.97 (0.87–1.08) 1.12 (0.65–1.91) 0.77 (0.57–1.03) 1.06 (0.87–1.30) 0.98 (0.84–1.14)
  History of IS/TIA 4710 (8.7) 965 (25.5) 3.26 (3.02–3.52) 1.97 (1.25–3.12) 2.89 (2.33–3.59) 3.09 (2.68–3.57) 3.57 (3.22–3.95)
  History of IHDd 9308 (17.2) 890 (23.5) 1.16 (1.07–1.27) 0.81 (0.50–1.31) 1.45 (1.15–1.83) 1.06 (0.91–1.24) 1.18 (1.05–1.32)
  COPD 2458 (4.5) 193 (5.1) 1.04 (0.89–1.20) 1.15 (0.56–2.39) 0.79 (0.50–1.26) 1.07 (0.81–1.41) 1.03 (0.85–1.26)
  Thyroid disease 4571 (8.4) 361 (9.5) 1.01 (0.90–1.13) 0.72 (0.40–1.31) 0.97 (0.72–1.29) 0.99 (0.81–1.21) 1.07 (0.91–1.25)
  DVT 3139 (5.8) 290 (7.7) 1.15 (1.02–1.29) 0.67 (0.32–1.39) 1.50 (1.09–2.07) 1.30 (1.05–1.60) 1.02 (0.85–1.21)
  PAD 3330 (6.1) 365 (9.6) 1.22 (1.09–1.36) 0.96 (0.54–1.68) 1.35 (1.02–1.77) 1.36 (1.11–1.67) 1.15 (0.98–1.35)
  Anemia 3298 (6.1) 263 (6.9) 1.04 (0.92–1.19) 0.82 (0.47–1.44) 1.01 (0.74–1.38) 1.05 (0.83–1.33) 1.08 (0.90–1.30)
  Atrial fibrillation 3273 (6.0) 221 (5.8) 0.95 (0.83–1.09) 0.61 (0.22–1.68) 0.82 (0.52–1.29) 0.85 (0.63–1.13) 1.05 (0.89–1.24)
  Heart failure 3755 (6.9) 256 (6.8) 0.97 (0.86–1.11) 0.76 (0.30–1.91) 1.08 (0.74–1.57) 1.06 (0.83–1.34) 0.95 (0.80–1.12)
  Gout 3299 (6.1) 300 (7.9) 1.17 (1.04–1.32) 0.86 (0.47–1.59) 1.15 (0.84–1.59) 1.34 (1.07–1.66) 1.11 (0.94–1.32)
  Cancer 4845 (8.9) 450 (11.9) 1.30 (1.18–1.44) 0.84 (0.42–1.69) 1.33 (1.01–1.75) 1.09 (0.90–1.33) 1.43 (1.25–1.63)
  1. aAdjusted for sex, age at start date, duration of diabetes, BMI, smoking status, number of medications, HbA1c level, presence of hypertension hyperlidemia, and history of MI, IS/TIA, IHD and eGFR category. bAdjusted for sex, age at start date, duration of diabetes, BMI, smoking status, number of medications, HbA1c level, presence of hypertension hyperlidemia, and history of MI, IS/TIA, and IHD. cRelative to absence of comorbidity. dExcluding MI.
  2. BMI, body mass index; CI, confidence interval; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; DVT, deep vein thrombosis; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; HR, hazard ratio; IHD, ischemic heart disease; IS, ischemic stroke; MI, myocardial infarction; PAD, peripheral artery disease; TIA TIA, transient ischemic attack.