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Table 5 HRs of MI associated with potential risk factors, overall and stratified by eGFR category

From: Cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in a cohort of 57,946 patients with type 2 diabetes: associations with renal function and cardiovascular risk factors

  Non–MI MI   eGFR category
  n = 54,511 n = 3435 Overall 15–29 mL/min 30–44 mL/min 45–59 mL/min ≥60 mL/min
  Number (%) Number (%) HR a (95% CI) HR b (95% CI) HR b (95% CI) HR b (95% CI) HR b (95% CI)
Sex
  Men 29,966 (55.0) 2151 (62.6) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−)
  Women 25,545 (45.0) 1284 (37.4) 0.71 (0.66–0.77) 1.15 (0.74–1.78) 0.90 (0.73–1.11) 0.78 (0.68–0.90) 0.62 (0.56–0.69)
Age at start date (years)
  20–49 5573 (10.2) 150 (4.4) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−)
  50–74 35,880 (65.8) 2192 (63.8) 1.73 (1.46–2.05) 0.39 (0.05–2.96) 1.27 (0.31–5.17) 1.04 (0.57–1.91) 1.75 (1.46–2.10)
  ≥75 13,058 (24.0) 1093 (31.8) 2.99 (2.49–3.59) 0.44 (0.06–3.35) 1.77 (0.44–7.22) 1.76 (0.96–3.23) 3.26 (2.66–4.00)
Duration of diabetes (years)
  <5 24,828 (45.6) 1221 (35.6) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−)
  5–9 16,112 (29.6) 1011 (29.4) 1.14 (1.05–1.24) 0.55 (0.29–1.03) 1.04 (0.81–1.34) 1.20 (1.01–1.42) 1.15 (1.04–1.28)
  10–14 7845 (14.4) 658 (19.2) 1.43 (1.30–1.58) 1.41 (0.79–2.52) 0.98 (0.73–1.31) 1.62 (1.34–1.95) 1.44 (1.27–1.63)
  ≥15 5726 (10.5) 545 (15.9) 1.54 (1.39–1.71) 1.41 (0.81–2.46) 1.44 (1.09–1.89) 1.69 (1.38–2.06) 1.47 (1.28–1.70)
BMI (kg/m2)
  15–19 863 (1.6) 52 (1.5) 1.25 (0.94–1.66) 0.73 (0.27–2.01) 1.12 (0.65–1.94) 1.50 (1.05–2.13)
  20–24 8999 (16.5) 547 (15.9) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−)
  25–29 19,633 (36.0) 1378 (40.1) 1.08 (0.98–1.19) 1.12 (0.64–1.98) 1.20 (0.91–1.59) 1.05 (0.87–1.27) 1.06 (0.93–1.21)
  ≥30 21,713 (39.8) 1246 (36.3) 1.01 (0.91–1.12) 0.67 (0.37–1.22) 0.90 (0.67–1.22) 0.99 (0.81–1.22) 1.05 (0.91–1.20)
Unknown 3303 (6.1) 212 (6.2) 1.22 (1.04–1.44) 0.45 (0.16–1.24) 0.95 (0.60–1.48) 1.38 (1.02–1.87) 1.27 (1.01–1.59)
Smoking status
  Non–smoker 28,484 (52.3) 1691 (49.2) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−)
  Current 9427 (17.3) 701 (20.4) 1.40 (1.28–1.53) 0.84 (0.42–1.70) 1.23 (0.91–1.66) 1.41 (1.17–1.70) 1.43 (1.27–1.59)
  Former 14,116 (25.9) 895 (26.1) 0.99 (0.91–1.08) 0.85 (0.52–1.39) 0.87 (0.68–1.11) 1.03 (0.88–1.21) 1.01 (0.91–1.13)
  Unknown 2484 (4.6) 148 (4.3) 0.98 (0.82–1.17) 0.74 (0.26–2.14) 1.22 (0.78–1.91) 1.12 (0.80–1.56) 0.89 (0.70–1.12)
Number of medications
  0–1 14,314 (26.3) 693 (20.2) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−)
  2–4 19,322 (35.4) 1136 (33.1) 1.15 (1.05–1.27) 0.66 (0.31–1.40) 1.44 (1.02–2.04) 1.31 (1.08–1.59) 1.08 (0.96–1.21)
  5–9 17,413 (31.9) 1267 (36.9) 1.18 (1.07–1.30) 0.96 (0.51–1.82) 1.29 (0.93–1.80) 1.22 (1.01–1.48) 1.12 (0.99–1.27)
  ≥10 3462 (6.4) 339 (9.9) 1.41 (1.23–1.62) 0.65 (0.30–1.44) 1.54 (1.04–2.29) 1.28 (0.97–1.69) 1.57 (1.31–1.89)
HbA1c (%)
  <7.00 18,429 (33.8) 953 (27.7) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−)
  7.00–7.99 12,074 (22.2) 749 (21.8) 1.15 (1.05–1.27) 0.98 (0.54–1.78) 1.17 (0.90–1.52) 0.90 (0.74–1.09) 1.30 (1.14–1.48)
  8.00–8.99 6721 (12.3) 500 (14.6) 1.33 (1.19–1.49) 0.83 (0.40–1.70) 1.23 (0.89–1.71) 1.22 (0.99–1.51) 1.45 (1.26–1.68)
  9.00–9.99 4310 (7.9) 324 (9.4) 1.40 (1.23–1.59) 1.23 (0.54–2.76) 1.28 (0.88–1.89) 1.24 (0.96–1.60) 1.53 (1.30–1.81)
  ≥10.00 4468 (8.6) 330 (9.6) 1.53 (1.35–1.74) 0.82 (0.38–1.78) 0.89 (0.55–1.43) 1.38 (1.07–1.80) 1.77 (1.51–2.08)
  Missing 8509 (15.6) 579 (16.9) 1.24 (1.11–1.37) 1.32 (0.76–2.30) 0.90 (0.67–1.22) 1.23 (1.01–1.50) 1.34 (1.16–1.54)
Comorbiditiesc
  Hypertension 30,684 (56.3) 2068 (60.2) 1.05 (0.98–1.13) 0.73 (0.46–1.14) 0.82 (0.67–1.01) 1.08 (0.94–1.25) 1.09 (1.00–1.20)
  Hyperlipidemia 3574 (6.6) 424 (12.3) 1.39 (1.25–1.56) 1.57 (1.02–2.41) 1.53 (1.21–1.94) 1.45 (1.20–1.76) 1.31 (1.09–1.58)
  History of MI 4778 (8.8) 803 (23.4) 1.94 (1.77–2.12) 2.25 (1.44–3.52) 1.80 (1.41–2.30) 1.99 (1.68–2.37) 1.93 (1.71–2.19)
  History of IS/TIA 5187 (9.5) 488 (14.2) 1.29 (1.17–1.43) 1.17 (0.71–1.92) 1.19 (0.92–1.53) 1.21 (1.01–1.45) 1.42 (1.24–1.63)
  History of IHDd 9021 (16.5) 1177 (34.3) 1.66 (1.53–1.80) 1.35 (0.88–2.08) 1.34 (1.07–1.68) 1.57 (1.35–1.83) 1.81 (1.62–2.02)
  COPD 2453 (4.5) 198 (5.8) 1.17 (1.01–1.35) 0.83 (0.35–1.96) 1.13 (0.78–1.66) 1.08 (0.81–1.43) 1.24 (1.01–1.52)
  Thyroid disease 4648 (8.5) 284 (8.3) 0.96 (0.85–1.09) 1.37 (0.80–2.36) 0.86 (0.64–1.17) 0.91 (0.73–1.13) 1.01 (0.84–1.21)
  DVT 3199 (5.9) 230 (6.7) 1.03 (0.90–1.18) 0.43 (0.19–0.98) 1.03 (0.73–1.46) 0.88 (0.68–1.15) 1.17 (0.97–1.40)
  PAD 3253 (6.0) 442 (12.9) 1.53 (1.38–1.70) 1.15 (0.70–1.91) 1.55 (1.20–2.00) 1.40 (1.14–1.71) 1.67 (1.45–1.93)
  Anemia 3310 (6.1) 251 (7.3) 1.12 (0.98–1.28) 1.04 (0.63–1.73) 0.93 (0.68–1.27) 1.18 (0.94–1.50) 1.18 (0.97–1.44)
  Atrial fibrillation 3273 (6.0) 221 (6.4) 1.08 (0.95–1.24) 0.96 (0.41–2.24) 0.77 (0.49–1.22) 1.07 (0.81–1.41) 1.17 (0.99–1.39)
  Heart failure 3759 (6.9) 252 (7.3) 1.06 (0.93–1.21) 0.83 (0.39–1.79) 0.59 (0.37–0.95) 1.02 (0.79–1.32) 1.21 (1.03–1.42)
  Gout 3359 (6.2) 240 (7.0) 0.93 (0.81–1.06) 1.25 (0.72–2.20) 0.81 (0.57–1.13) 1.17 (0.92–1.49) 0.83 (0.68–1.01)
  Cancer 4986 (9.1) 309 (9.0) 1.00 (0.89–1.13) 1.61 (0.92–2.85) 0.83 (0.60–1.14) 1.07 (0.87–1.32) 0.97 (0.82–1.15)
  1. aAdjusted for sex, age at start date, duration of diabetes, BMI, smoking status, number of medications, HbA1c level, presence of hypertension hyperlidemia, and history of MI, IS/TIA, IHD and eGFR category. bAdjusted for sex, age at start date, duration of diabetes, BMI, smoking status, number of medications, HbA1c level, presence of hypertension hyperlidemia, and history of MI, IS/TIA, and IHD. cRelative to absence of comorbidity. dExcluding MI.
  2. BMI, body mass index; CI, confidence interval; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; DVT, deep vein thrombosis; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; HR, hazard ratio; IHD, ischemic heart disease; IS, ischemic stroke; MI, myocardial infarction; PAD, peripheral artery disease; TIA, transient ischemic attack.