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Table 1 Clinical, hemodynamic, and echocardiographic characteristics of patients

From: Clinical features of subclinical left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with diabetes mellitus

  All patients (n = 144) Patients with GLS ≥ 18% (n = 91) Patients with GLS < 18% (n = 53) p value
Clinical Data     
 Age, years 57 ± 15 57 ± 15 57 ± 15 0.75
 Female, n (%) 79(55) 55(60) 24(45) 0.09
 Height, m 1.6 ± 1.0 1.6 ± 0.9 1.6 ± 1.0 0.20
 Weight, kg 64 ± 15 60 ± 12 72 ± 18 <0.001
 Body Mass Index, kg/m2 24.7 ± 4.9 23 ± 3.9 27 ± 6.0 <0.001
 Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 124 ± 19 122 ± 17 130 ± 21 0.007
 Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 73 ± 11 71 ± 11 76 ± 10 0.002
 Pulse pressure, mmHg 53 ± 15 51 ± 14 55 ± 17 0.03
 Heart rate, bpm 69 ± 11 67 ± 11 71 ± 10 0.04
 Rate Pressure Product, bpm*mmHg 9173 ± 1992 8741 ± 1812 9905 ± 2052 <0.001
 Obesity, n (%) 58(40) 25(27) 33(62) <0.001
 Type 2 DM, n (%) 104(72) 55(60) 49(92) <0.001
 DM duration, years 11.8 ± 9.6 10.4 ± 8.4 13.6 ± 10.1 0.04
 Hypertension, n (%) 69(48) 39(43) 30(57) 0.12
 Dyslipidemia, n (%) 89(62) 53(58) 36(68) 0.29
 Hypertriglyceridemia, n (%) 44(31) 17(19) 27(51) <0.001
 Smoking, n (%) 31(22) 29(32) 25(47) 0.53
Complications     
 Nephropathy, n (%) 54(38) 13(14) 34(64) <0.001
 Neuropathy, n (%) 47(33) 19(21) 29(55) <0.001
 Retinopathy, n (%) 48(33) 29(32) 25(47) 0.07
Biochemistry and Urinary Examination     
 HbA1c, % 8.2(7.0-9.6) 8.0(6.8-9.0) 8.7(7.3-10.0) 0.21
 1,5-anhydroglucitol, g/dl 4.3(2.4-8.1) 5.1(2.7-8.6) 3.3(2.0-7.1) 0.07
 Glycoalbumin, % 21.8(17.4-27.2) 21.8(18.0-28.4) 22.0(16.8-26.8) 0.52
 HOMA index 1.9(1.1-4.1) 1.5(1.0-3.0) 2.5(1.3-4.8) 0.049
 Low-density lipoprotein, mg/dl 103 ± 35 100 ± 35 107 ± 34 0.22
 High-density lipoprotein, mg/dl 53 ± 17 54 ± 16 50 ± 17 0.23
 Triglyceride, mg/dl 112(78–159) 96(66–132) 154(113–203) <0.001
 eGFR, ml/min/1.73 m2 77(61–89) 77(64–89) 74(58–90) 0.26
 Albuminuria, mg/day 11.5(4.5-33.0) 7.0(3.0-18.0) 39.0(11.0-181.3) <0.001
Medications     
 Calcium channel blocker, n (%) 38(26) 21(23) 17(32) 0.25
 ACEI/ARB, n (%) 58(40) 30(33) 28(53) 0.02
 β-blocker, n (%) 13(9) 6(7) 7(13) 0.23
 Diuretics, n (%) 10(7) 4(4) 6(11) 0.17
 Statin, n (%) 68(47) 36(40) 32(60) 0.02
 Insulin, n (%) 90(63) 58(64) 32(60) 0.72
 DPP-4I, n (%) 55(38) 30(33) 25(47) 0.11
 GLP-1RA, n (%) 13(9) 7(7) 6(11) 0.55
 Sulfonylurea, n (%) 26(18) 15(16) 11(21) 051
 α-GI, n (%) 26(18) 15(16) 11(21) 0.51
 Thiazolidine, n (%) 13(9) 6(6) 7(13) 0.23
 Metformin, n (%) 59(41) 31(34) 28(53) 0.04
Echocardiography     
 Relative wall thickness 0.45(0.39-0.51) 0.41(0.36-0.47) 0.49(0.47-0.60) <0.001
 Left atrial volume index, ml/m2 28(22–34) 27(22–33) 31(23–37) 0.07
 LV mass index, g/m2 75(63–86) 68(57–80) 83(74–94) <0.001
 LV mass index, g/m2.7 34(27–41) 30(25–37) 41(33–46) <0.001
 End-systolic volume, ml 26 ± 10 24 ± 9 29 ± 12 0.004
 End-diastolic volume, ml 75 ± 22 71 ± 21 80 ± 23 0.004
 LV ejection fraction, % 66 ± 4 67 ± 4 65 ± 5 0.002
 Stroke volume, ml 62(56–72) 62(56–73) 63(56–69) 0.68
 E/A 0.83(0.68-1.1) 0.86(0.7-1.2) 0.77(0.66-0.95) 0.03
 E-wave deceleration time 189(163–227) 190(158–225) 187(167–235) 0.54
 E’ 6.3(5.0-7.5) 6.5(5.6-8.1) 5.6(4.4-6.7) <0.001
 E/E’ 9.6(8.0-11.6) 9.1(7.7-11.3) 10.3(9.1-13.5) 0.002
 Global longitudinal strain, % 18.8 ± 2.7 20.4 ± 1.6 16.1 ± 1.7 <0.001
  1. Values are mean ± SD for normally distributed data and median and interquartile range for non-normally distributed data, or n (%).
  2. DM = diabetes mellitus; HOMA = homeostatic model assessment; eGFR = estimated glomerular filtration rate; ACEI = angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB = angiotensin II receptor blocker; DPP-4I = dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor; GLP-1RA = glucagon like peptide-1receptor agonist; α-GI = α-glucosidase inhibitor; LV = left ventricular; E = peak early diastolic mitral flow velocity; A = peak late diastolic mitral flow velocity; E’ = Spectral pulsed-wave Doppler–derived early diastolic velocity from the septal mitral annulus.