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Table 3 The hazard ratios (95% CIs) for cardiovascular events in patients treated with EBID or EBID + insulin compared to those treated with insulin, after adjusting for covariates, for all patients, and separately for patients without the history of cardiovascular diseases and without renal diseases before index date and during follow-up

From: The association of the treatment with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist exenatide or insulin with cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes: a retrospective observational study

  All patients Without previous CVD Without previous CVD & renal diseases
N = 39,225 N = 34,672 N = 33,744
  HR (CI) p-value HR (CI) p-value HR (CI) p-value
HF
EBID vs Insulin 0.34 (0.22, 0.52) <0.001 0.34 (0.22, 0.52) <0.001 0.32 (0.21, 0.50) <0.001
EBID + Insulin vs Insulin 0.40 (0.32, 0.50) <0.001 0.40 (0.32, 0.50) <0.001 0.35 (0.28, 0.45) <0.001
MI
EBID vs Insulin 0.52 (0.23, 1.19) 0.12 0.24 (0.06, 0.99) 0.049 0.23 (0.06, 0.95) 0.043
EBID + Insulin vs Insulin 0.65 (0.44, 0.98) 0.038 0.52 (0.31, 0.91) 0.021 0.45 (0.28, 0.85) 0.011
Stroke
EBID vs Insulin 0.50 (0.28, 0.84) 0.010 0.36 (0.18, 0.74) 0.005 0.37 (0.18, 0.75) 0.006
EBID + Insulin vs Insulin 0.38 (0.27, 0.54) <0.001 0.27 (0.17, 0.42) <0.001 0.26 (0.16, 0.42) <0.001
MI or Stroke
EBID vs Insulin 0.50 (0.32, 0.79) 0.003 0.33 (0.18, 0.63) 0.001 0.33 (0.18, 0.63) 0.001
EBID + Insulin vs Insulin 0.44 (0.34, 0.57) <0.001 0.33 (0.23, 0.47) <0.001 0.32 (0.22, 0.46) <0.001
  1. Adjusted for gender, ethnicity, age at the start of cohort, duration of diabetes, BMI, HbA1c, systolic and diastolic blood pressure on the index date, history of CV disease, any renal disease prior to index date or during follow-up, use of metformin (MET), sulphonylurea (SU), and CPMs or antihypertensive medications time.