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Table 2 Changes in postprandial insulin after breakfast and dinner at day 1 and day 28

From: Effect of empagliflozin monotherapy on postprandial glucose and 24-hour glucose variability in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 4-week study

  Placebo (n = 20) Empagliflozin 10 mg (n = 20) Empagliflozin 25 mg (n = 19)
AUC 1–4h for postprandial insulin, μIU · h/ml    
Baseline 66.4 (63.5)* 58.9 (55.6) 65.3 (46.2)
Relative change from baseline at day 1 1.2 (1.1, 1.3) 1.0 (0.9, 1.1) 1.0 (0.9, 1.0)
 Difference vs placebo (95% CI)   0.8 (0.7, 0.9) 0.8 (0.7, 0.9)
 p-value   <0.001 <0.001
Relative change from baseline at day 28 1.0 (0.9, 1.1) 0.9 (0.8, 0.9) 0.8 (0.7, 0.9)
 Difference vs placebo (95% CI)   0.9 (0.8, 1.0) 0.8 (0.7, 0.9)
 p-value   0.074 0.002
AUC 10–13h for postprandial insulin, μIU · h/ml    
Baseline 73.8 (56.6)† 60.7 (60.5) 70.0 (53.7)
Relative change from baseline at day 1 1.1 (1.0, 1.2) 0.9 (0.8, 1.0) 0.9 (0.8, 0.9)
 Difference vs placebo (95% CI)   0.8 (0.8, 0.9) 0.8 (0.7, 0.9)
 p-value   0.002 <0.001
Relative change from baseline at day 28 1.0 (0.9, 1.0) 0.8 (0.8, 0.9) 0.8 (0.7, 0.9)
 Difference vs placebo (95% CI)   0.9 (0.8, 1.0) 0.8 (0.7, 0.9)
 p-value   0.011 0.001
  1. Log-transformed data. Baseline data are gMean (% gCV), change from baseline data are adjusted gMean ratio (95% CI) based on analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) in the full analysis set. *63.8 (65.5) for day 1 analysis (n = 21). 72.8 (55.5) for day 1 analysis (n = 21).