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Table 3 Crude and adjusted odds ratios for the presence of any grade of diastolic dysfunction according to quartiles of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome status

From: Diastolic dysfunction in the diabetic continuum: association with insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes

  Prevalence of LVDD n (%) Crude OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR* (95% CI)
Insulin resistance    
(HOMA-IR score)    
Quartile 1 35 (14.9%) Reference Reference
Quartile 2 42 (18.6%) 1.30 (0.80-2.13) 1.08 (0.63-1.86)
Quartile 3 70 (29.3%) 2.37 (1.50-3.73) 1.88 (1.12-3.14)
Quartile 4 89 (30.6%) 2.52 (1.63-3.90) 1.82 (1.09-3.03)
No Metabolic Syndrome (n = 571) 93 (16.3%) Reference Reference
Metabolic Syndrome without T2DM (n = 331) 108 (32.6%) 2.54 (1.85-3.50) 1.62 (1.12-2.36)
Metabolic Syndrome with T2DM (n = 123) 45 (36.6%) 3.04 (1.98-4.67) 1.78 (1.09-2.91)
  1. T2DM: type 2 diabetes mellitus; LVDD: left ventricular diastolic dysfunction; HOMA-IR - Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance;
  2. OR (95% CI) – odds ratio with 95% confidence interval.
  3. *Variables included in the model: age (continuous), sex, systolic blood pressure (continuous) and body mass index (continuous).