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Table 1 Characteristics of the study participants

From: Diastolic dysfunction in the diabetic continuum: association with insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes

  Total
  n = 1063
Age, years 62.2 ± 10.6
Male sex, n (%) 394 (37.1)
Cardiovascular risk factors  
 Hypertension, n (%) 361 (34.8)
 Diabetes, n (%) 123 (11.8)
 Dyslipidemia, n (%) 570 (54.9)
 Obesity, n (%) 258 (24.3)
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 133 ± 20
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 78 ± 11
BMI, Kg/m2 27.5 ± 4.6
Waist perimeter/height, cm/cm 0.58 ± 0.07
Hip perimeter/height, cm/cm 0.64 ± 0.07
Waist-to-hip ratio 0.92 ± 0.08
Analytical data  
 Total cholesterol, mg/dL 220 ± 52
 HDL, mg/dL 62 ± 44
 LDL, mg/dL 134 ± 52
 Triglycerides, mg/dL 152 ± 443
 Glucose, mg/dL 104 ± 47
 C-reactive protein, mg/dL 0.19 (0.09-0.4)
 HOMA-IR score 1.09 (0.62-1.86)
Echocardiography  
 Septum, mm 8.7 ± 1.5
 Posterior wall, mm 7.9 ± 1.3
 LV mass index, g/m2 80.2 ± 21.0
 Left atrium volume index, ml/m2 29.2 ± 10.4
 LV end-diastolic volume, ml/m2 66.5 ± 16.9
 LV end-systolic volume, ml/m2 27.3 ± 10.2
 Ejection fraction, % 60.2 ± 6.8
 E wave, cm/s 71.4 ± 15.8
 A wave, cm/s 78.6 ± 19.9
 E/A ratio 0.96 ± 0.32
 Deceleration time, ms 238.1 ± 56.9
 IVRT, ms 92.0 ± 16.1
 E’ velocity, cm/s 10.5 ± 3.3
 E/E’ ratio 7.4 ± 2.7
 LVDD grade  
  Normal, n (%) 792 (76.3)
  Mild, n (%) 151 (14.5)
  Moderate, n (%) 92 (8.9)
  Severe, n (%) 3 (0.3)
  Undetermined 25
  1. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation for continuous variables with normal distribution, median and 25th and 75th percentiles (P25-P75) for variables with non-normal distribution and count (percentage) for categorical variables.
  2. (BMI – body mass index; s – seconds; DD – diastolic dysfunction; IVRT – isovolumetric relaxation time; LV – left ventricle; LVDD – left ventricle diastolic dysfunction).