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Table 4 Comparison of changes in biomedical outcomes and cardiovascular risks between RAMP-DM group and usual care group at 12 months

From: Effects of the Multidisciplinary Risk Assessment and Management Program for Patients with Diabetes Mellitus (RAMP-DM) on biomedical outcomes, observed cardiovascular events and cardiovascular risks in primary care: a longitudinal comparative study

  Paired difference (12 months – baseline) Unadjusted D-in-D Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
Variables RAMP-DM (N = 1072) Mean (95% CI) Usual care (N = 1072) Mean (95% CI) Estimate (95% CI) Coefficients (95% CI) Coefficients (95% CI) Coefficients (95% CI)
HbA1c (%) −0.11** (−0.18, −0.04) 0.10* (0.01, 0.17) −0.20** (−0.30,-0.09) −0.14** (−0.23,-0.05) −0.11* (−0.21, −0.02) −0.11* (−0.20,-0.02)
TC (mmol/L) −0.27** (−0.33, −0.21) −0.25** (−0.32, −0.19) −0.02 (−0.10,0.07) −0.07 (−0.15,0.01) −0.07 (−0.15,0.01) −0.06 (−0.12,0.03)
LDL-C (mmol/L) −0.31** (−0.38, −0.24) −0.21** (−0.29, −0.13) −0.10 (−0.21, 0.01) −0.03 (−0.07, 0.12) −0.02 (−0.12, 0.07) −0.02 (−0.08, 0.11)
HDL-C (mmol/L) 0.04** (0.03, 0.05) 0.02* (0.002, 0.03) 0.02* (0.01, 0.04) 0.02 (−0.005, 0.04) 0.02 (−0.004, 0.04) 0.02 (−0.004, 0.04)
Triglyceride (mmol/L) −0.09* (−0.18, −0.01) −0.10** (−0.17, −0.03) 0.02 (−0.14, 0.11) 0.04 (−0.07, 0.16) 0.04 (−0.08, 0.16) 0.04 (−0.08, 0.16)
SBP (mmHg) −4.20** (−5.25, −3.04) −0.58 (−0.65, 1.81) −3.62** (−5.31, −1.93) −0.21 (−1.58, 1.16) −0.32 (−1.70, 1.04) −0.40 (−1.73, 0.93)
DBP (mmHg) −2.53** (−3.18, −1.88) −0.60 (−0.06, 1.26) −1.73** (−2.10, −1.16) −0.89* (−1.66, −0.11) −0.95* (−1.73, −0.18) −0.94* (−1.72, −0.16)
BMI (kg/m2) −0.32** (−0.41, −0.23) −0.21** (−0.33, −0.07) −0.11 (−0.26, 0.04) −0.07 (−0.22, 0.08) −0.06 (−0.21, 0.09) −0.06 (−0.21, 0.09)
Percentage reaching treatment target (%)
HbA1c < 7% 4.11* (0.63, 7.60) −1.29 (−5.32, 2.75) 5.40* (0.25, 10.55) 4.24 (−0.79, 9.27) 3.29 (−1.79, 8.37) 3.16 (−1.93, 8.24)
SBP < 130 mmHg 5.34** (1.67, 9.02) 2.19 (−1.79, 6.16) 3.16 (−2.25, 8.57) 4.08 (−1.00, 9.16) 3.74 (−1.35, 8.83) 3.71 (−1.39, 8.81)
DBP < 80 mmHg 8.87** (5.61, 12.14) 0.98 (−2.24, 4.20) 7.89** (3.42, 12.36) 4.49* (0.34, 8.63) 4.58* (0.40, 8.75) 4.57* (0.39, 8.74)
SBP/DBP < 130/80 mmHg 6.20** (2.63, 9.77) 0.43 (−3.43, 4.31) 5.77* (0.51, 11.02) 0.97 (−3.98, 5.93) 7.25 (−4.25, 5.70) 0.74 (−4.23, 5.73)
LDL-C < 2.6 mmol/L 17.52** (12.80, 22.24) 11.94** (5.53, 18.35) 5.58 (−1.99, 13.15) 0.07 (−7.47, 7.62) 0.17 (−7.40, 7.74) 0.50 (−7.00, 8.00)
Predicted cardiovascular risk (%)
Framingham 10-year CVD riska −3.93** (−4.63, −3.32) −1.87** (−2.70, −1.05) −2.06** (−3.14, −0.98) −1.70** (−2.69, −0.68) −1.67 (−2.52, 0.73) −1.73 (−2.65, 0.75)
UKPDS 10-year CHD riskb −3.00** (−3.54, −2.44) −1.55** (−2.19, −0.92) −1.43** (−2.23, −0.58) −1.20** (−2.00, −0.43) −1.22* (−2.02, −0.45) −1.25* (−2.05, −0.45)
UKPDS 10-year stroke riskc −1.17** (−1.49, −0.85) −0.46 (−0.01, 0.01) −0.71* (−1.28, −0.15) −0.96** (−1.50, −0.49) −1.00** (−1.51, −0.49) −0.77** (−1.30, −0.23)
  1. *P-value < 0.05; **P-value <0.01.
  2. aPredicted by the Framingham cardiovascular risk function.
  3. bPredicted by the UKPDS CHD risk engine.
  4. cPredicted by the UKPDS stroke risk engine.
  5. D-in-D, difference-in-differences; BMI, body mass index; CVD, cardiovascular disease; CHD, coronary heart disease; SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; DM, diabetes mellitus; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; HDL-C, high density lipid cholesterol; LDL-C, low density lipid cholesterol; TC, total cholesterol.
  6. Model 1, adjusted for age, sex, smoking status, duration of DM, type of DM, and baseline value of the outcome measure; Model 2, adjusted for age, sex, smoking status, duration of DM, type of DM, baseline value of the outcome measure, and four types of drugs at baseline; Model 3, adjusted for age, sex, smoking status, duration of DM, type of DM, baseline value of the outcome measure, four types of drugs at baseline and drugs at 12 months.