Palmitate metabolism is required for the induction of IL-6 and TNF-α. A, Chemical structure of palmitic acid and non-metabolizable palmitic acid analogs methylpalmitate (MP) and 2-bromopalmitate (2-BP). B, IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expression in THP-1 cells stimulated for 12 hours with palmitate (250 μM) or equivalent concentrations of MP or 2-BP. C, IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expression in THP-1 cells stimulated with palmitate in the presence of vehicle (DMSO) or an inhibitor of long chain fatty acyl CoA synthetase (triacsin C, 1 μM). Values are means ± SE (n = 3). *, p < 0.05, #, p < 0.01 versus BSA.