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Table 1 Anthropometric and cardiometabolic characteristics according to ethnicity

From: Ethnic differences in cardiometabolic risk profile in an overweight/obese paediatric cohort in the Netherlands: a cross-sectional study

  Dutch Native Turkish Moroccan Other P-value
N (%) 95 (18.4) 145 (28.1) 133 (25.8) 143 (27.7) -
Male (%) 49.5 60.7 56.4 52.4 0.19
Pubertal (%) 55.8 63.4 57.1 56.6 0.80
Age (years) 11 ± 3 11 ± 3 10 ± 3 11 ± 3 0.23
Z-BMI 2.6 ± 0.5 2.8 ± 0.5* 2.8 ± 0.5 2.8 ± 4.5 0.03
Z-WC 3.8 ± 1.2 4.1 ± 1.1 3.9 ± 1.3 3.8 ± 1.0 0.16
SBP (mmHg) 116 ± 11 116 ± 12 113 ± 11 115 ± 12 0.11
DBP (mmHg) 71 ± 8 73 ± 9 70 ± 8 71 ± 8 0.02
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L) 5.2 ± 0.4 5.3 ± 0.4 5.3 ± 0.4 5.3 ± 0.4 0.17
2-h plasma glucose (mmol/L) 5.8 ± 0.9 5.9 ± 1.0 5.7 ± 0.9 5.9 ± 1.0 0.083
Fasting plasma insulin (pmol/L) 95 (65–165) 112 (83–167) 90 (58–138) 112 (71–188) 0.002
HOMA-IR 3.1 (2.0–5.4) 3.6 (2.6–5.7) 3.0 (1.8–4.7) 3.5 (2.4–6.1) 0.003
HOMA-B 159 (109–258) 177 (120–251) 138 (99–204) 174 (112–288) 0.004
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.4 ± 0.9 4.3 ± 0.8 4.2 ± 0.8 4.4 ± 0.7 0.23
HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.1 (0.9–1.2) 1.0 (0.9–1.2) 1.1 (0.9–1.3) 1.0 (0.9–1.2) 0.014
LDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) 2.8 ± 0.6 2.8 ± 0.7 2.7 ± 0.7 2.9 ± 0.6 0.075
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 0.9 (0.6–1.3) 0.9 (0.6–1.3) 0.7 (0.5–1.0) 1.1 (0.7–1.2) 0.004
  1. Data are mean ± SD and n (%) or median (interquartile range) for variables with a skewed distribution. P-values are given for comparisons between ethnic groups, tested with ANOVA.
  2. SD-standard deviation; Z-BMI-standard deviation score of BMI; Z-WC-standard deviation score of waist circumference; HOMA-IR-Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance; HOMA-B-Homeostatis Model Assessment for pancreatic β-cell function
  3. *P < 0.05 compared to Dutch native children, P < 0.05 compared to Moroccan children, P < 0.01 compared to Moroccan children.