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Table 2 Parameter estimates of the risk score for heart failure hospitalisation in the training dataset.

From: Development and validation of a risk score for hospitalization for heart failure in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

  Univariate Analysis Multivariate Analysis
Variables† Hazard ratio (95% CI) P value Estimates of β values S.E.M Hazard ratio (95% CI) P value
Variables used in the predicting model       
Age, per year 1.10(1.08–1.12) <.0001 0.0709 0.0107 1.07(1.05–1.10) <.0001
Body mass index, per kg/m2 1.01(0.97–1.05) 0.6568 0.0627 0.0286 1.07(1.01–1.13) 0.0282
Glycated haemoglobin, per % 1.16(1.07–1.25) 0.0003 0.1363 0.0550 1.15(1.03–1.28) 0.0132
Log10(1+spot urinary albumin to creatinine ratio, per mg/mmol) 4.50(3.65–5.54) <.0001 0.9915 0.1409 2.70(2.32–3.55) <.0001
Blood haemoglobin, per g/dL 0.61(0.55–0.68) <.0001 -0.3606 0.0684 0.70(0.61–0.80) 0.0001
Coronary heart disease during follow-up (1. yes, 0. no) 3.61(2.24–5.81) <.0001 0.8161 0.2675 2.26(1.26–4.05) 0.0061
Variables not used in the predicting model       
Duration of diabetes, per year 1.07(1.05–1.09) <.0001    Not selected  
Glomerular filtration rate, per ml min-1 1.73 m-2 0.97(0.96–0.97) <.0001    Not selected  
Systolic blood pressure, per mmHg 1.03(1.02–1.04) <.0001    Not selected  
Diastolic blood pressure, per mmHg 1.01(0.99–1.02) 0.5640    Not selected  
Low density lipoprotein cholesterol, per mmol/L 1.12(0.94–1.33) 0.2155    Not selected  
High density lipoprotein cholesterol, per mmol/L 0.80(0.48–1.34) 0.3976    Not selected  
Triglyceride, per mmol/L 1.04 (0.96–1.12) 0.3665    Not selected  
Smoking status      Not selected  
   Current smokers 0.62(0.37–1.02) 0.0592     
   Ex-smokers 1.96(1.28–3.01) 0.0020     
   Never 1.0      
Use of oral anti-diabetic drugs at baseline 1.04(0.73–1.47) 0.8471    Not selected  
Use of anti-hypertensive drugs at baseline 3.98(2.79–5.67) <.0001    Not selected  
Use of LLD at baseline 1.88(1.16–3.09) 0.0112    Not selected  
Use of ACEI or ARB at baseline 2.44(1.66–3.59) <.0001    Not selected  
Use of insulin at baseline 3.59(2.52–5.10) <.0001    Not selected  
  1. †, Sex-stratified Cox model was used to obtain estimates of β values and hazard rato of predctors for heart failure. χ2 test for likelihood ratio test = 234.60, Degree of freedom = 6, p < 0.0001 and the shrinkage of the model is = (234.60-6)/274.66 = 0.9744; Not selected indiates not selected by the backward algorithm at the significant levelt of 0.05.
  2. CI, confidence interval; LLD, lipid lowering drugs; ACEI, Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; ARB, angiotensin II receptor blockers