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Table 1 Clinical characteristics and metabolic parameters of male subjects with type-2 diabetes, pre-diabetes and no diabetes

From: Serum leptin and its relation to anthropometric measures of obesity in pre-diabetic Saudis

  No Diabetes Pre-diabetes Type-2 Diabetes
N 45 49 97
Age (years) 45.7(12.6) 50.1(11.6) 54.5(10.7)f
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg) 123.1(16.9) 132.8(25.1)a 130.7(17.5)
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg) 79.9(9.1) 85.1(11.4) 82.9(10.5)
BMI (Kg/m2) 29.2(7.3) 28.5(4.3) 27.3(4.1)
Waist (cm) 93.7(18.2) 98.6(10.1) 96.4(15.1)
Hips (cm) 95.9(15.7) 100.5(13.9) 99.8(14.4)
Fasting Glucose (mmol/L) 4.8(0.6) 6.1(0.4)f 13.7(5.0)f
Cholesterol (mmol/L) 5.2(1.6) 5.6(1.4) 6.5(1.9)f
HDL (mmol/L) 0.94(0.3) 1.2(0.4) 0.9(0.4)
Triglyceride (mmol/L) 1.8(0.6–6.7) 1.9(0.7–6.3) 2.5(1.6–15)
LDL (mmol/L) 3.3(1.1) 3.9(1.6) 4.2(1.8)b
Insulin μmol/L * 12.6(2–99) 12.3 (2–36) 16.2(2–70)
Leptin ng/mL * 3.9(0.8–20) 7.6(1.2–72)d 12.4(3.2–72)c
APO A1 mg/dL 0.9(0.3) 0.9(0.5) 0.9(0.3)
APO A2 mg/dL 0.4(0.1) 0.4(0.1) 0.3(0.1)
HOMA-IR * 3.3(0.3–23.8) 3.5(0.5–10.2) 9.6(1.1–49.7)e
  1. Data are presented as means (SD) or as medians (interquartile range) for insulin, leptin and HOMA-IR data. The P-values shown are comparisons of metabolic characteristics for case control versus either prediabetic patients or those with T2DM: a) 0.046; b) p = 0.03; c) p = 0.012; d) p = 0.004; e) p = 0.001; f) p < 0.0001.