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Table 2 Hormone effects on the autonomic nervous system.

From: Neurohumoral stimulation in type-2-diabetes as an emerging disease concept

  Sympathetic function Vagal function
Insulin ↑ [10] ↓ [11]
Angiotensin 2 ↑ [42] ↓ [43]
Aldosterone ? ↓ [55]
Leptin ↑ [17] ?
  1. Sympathetic effects of hormones were derived from published evidence either from direct nerve recordings or power-spectral analysis of heart rate (low-frequency band). Vagal effects of hormones were assumed when heart rate variability was demonstrated to increase or when changes in the high-frequency band of power-spectral analysis of heart rate occurred. Arrows indicate the direction of the hormone-mediated changes, question marks indicate unknown effects.