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Abbreviations Table 3 In order of appearance.

From: Vasa vasorum in plaque angiogenesis, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and atheroscleropathy: a malignant transformation

Ang II Angiotensin II.
RAAS Renin angiotensin aldosterone system.
ROS Reactive Oxygen Species (O 2 , -OH, H 2 O 2 , 1O 2 ).
AT-1 Angiotensin type one receptor.
PKC Protein Kinase C.
IAPP Islet Amyloid Polypeptide.
TGFbeta-1 Transforming Growth Factor beta-1.
NAD(P)H oxidase Nicotine Adenine Di nucleotide Phosphate reduced oxidase.
AGE Advanced Glycation Endproducts.
AFE Advanced Fructosylation Endproducts.
RAGE Receptor for Advanced Glycosylation Endproducts.
ALE Advanced Lipoxidation Endproducts.
eNOS Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase.
NO Nitric Oxide.
BH4 Tetra Hydro Biopterin.
FFA Free Fatty Acids.
LC acyl -CoA's Long chain Acyl Co enzyme CoA.
VLDL Very low density lipoprotein.
LDL Low density lipoprotein.
HDL High density lipoprotein.
MS Metabolic Syndrome.
PD Prediabetes.
T2DM Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
PAI-1 Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1.
H 2 O Water.
Glut-4 Glucose Transporter-4.
PI3 Kinase Phosotidyl inositol 3 Kinase.
Akt Protein kinase B.
MAP Kinase Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase.
MAP Kinase Shunt MAP Kinase Shunt: The shunting away from the positive Glut 4 PI3 Kinase Akt pathway to the deleterious MAP Kinase pathway promoting remodeling due to an alteration in the NO redox sensitive PI3 Kinase /Akt pathway.
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IL-6 IL-8 Interleukin-6 Interleukin-8.
TNF alpha Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha.
MPO Myeloperoxidase: Generation of Superoxide (O 2 ) via hypochlorous acid HClO-
NF kappa B Nuclear Factor kappa B.
ICAM Inter Cellular Adhesion Molecule.
VCAM, Vascular Cellular Adhesion Molecule.
MCP-1 Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1
NADH Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide reduced
NAD+ Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide oxidized
DAG Diacylglycerol.
GPx Glutathione Peroxidase.
DDAH Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase.
ADMA Asymmetrical dimethyl arginine.
O 2 - ONOO Superoxide – Peroxynitrite.