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Figure 5 | Cardiovascular Diabetology

Figure 5

From: Vasa vasorum in plaque angiogenesis, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and atheroscleropathy: a malignant transformation

Figure 5

The 10 point process of angiogenesis visulized. The 10 point process of angiogenesis: Intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) may serve as an angiogenic stimulus for the further development of excessive vasa vasorum invasion of the intima and media, resulting in an even more unstable vulnerable plaque: prone to rupture. As the MMPs drill the openings for the invading adventitial Vv they may also contribute to the disruption of the internal elastic lamina, which contributes to the plaques instability. Additionally, the extravasated RBC plasma membranes become incorporated into the necrotic core and contribute to the enlargement of the necrotic core, as well as, providing an antigenic stimulus for the continued intraplaque inflammatory response.

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