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Figure 2 | Cardiovascular Diabetology

Figure 2

From: Vasa vasorum in plaque angiogenesis, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and atheroscleropathy: a malignant transformation

Figure 2

The atheroscleropathy associated with MS, PD, and T2DM has many deleterious pathways. There are multiple deleterious pathways associated with MS, PD, and T2DM. Atheroscleropathy is pro oxidative-redox stress, prothrombotic, pro-fibrotic, and pro-inflammatory. Each of these mechanisms and the disease process of atheroscleropathy promote a pro-angiogenic environment and associated with a diabetic vascularization paradox, in that, plaque angiogenesis is induced and arteriogenesis is impaired.

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