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Table 1 Baseline characteristics

From: Differential impact of subclinical carotid artery disease on cerebral structure and functioning in type 1 diabetes patients with versus those without proliferative retinopathy

  T1DM with proliferative retinopathy T1DM without proliferative retinopathy Controls Overall P-value
N 51 51 50 -
Age (years) 44.5 ± 7.1*# 38.1 ± 9.3 36.7 ± 11.4 <0.001
Sex male/female 21/30 20/33 20/31 0.978
Estimated IQa 110.2 ± 13.4 106.8 ± 11.3 108.5 ± 12.0 0.388
Depressive symptomsb 8.0 (0 – 42)*# 5.0 (0 – 31) 4.5 (0 – 37) 0.008
BMI (kg/m2) 25.6 ± 4.1 24.8 ± 3.6 24.1 ± 3.5 0.126
Height (meters) 1.73 ± 0.1 1.75 ± 0.1 1.76 ± 0.1 0.300
Current smoker (%) 6 (11.8) 10 (19.6) 11 (22.0) 0.347
HbA1c (mmol/mol) 64.7 ± 14.1* 61.7 ± 9.8* 34.3 ± 2.6 <0.001
HbA1c (%) 8.1 ± 1.3* 7.8 ± 0.9* 5.3 ± 0.2 <0.001
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 4.5 ± 0.7 4.7 ± 0.7 4.5 ± 0.9 0.276
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.8 ± 0.5* 1.8 ± 0.5* 1.5 ± 0.4 0.001
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 2.4 ± 0.6 2.5 ± 0.6 2.5 ± 0.8 0.686
Systolic BP (mmHg) 133.6 ± 17.3* 129.0 ± 14.9 123.9 ± 11.4 0.005
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 76.0 ± 8.7 78.1 ± 9.7 77.1 ± 7.2 0.488
Hypertension (%)c 33 (64.7) 12 (23.5) - <0.001
ACR (mg/mmol) 0.9 (0 – 33.2) 0.4 (0 – 3.19) - 0.005
Diabetes duration (years) 34.3 ± 7.8 21.8 ± 9.4 - <0.001
Diabetes onset age (years) 10.2 ± 7.2 16.3 ± 9.7 - 0.001
Early onset diabetes (%)d 18 (35.3) 10 (19.6)   0.120
BG before echo (mmol/l) 9.2 ± 4.0 8.9 ± 3.2 - 0.766
Severe hypoglycemiae 2.0 (0 – 40) 2.0 (0 – 50) - 0.770
Neuropathy (%)f 25 (49) - - -
Microalbuminuria (%)g 14 (27.5) - - -
  1. Data are represented as mean with standard deviation, median with min/max or absolute numbers with percentage between parenthesis. BMI: body mass index; BP: blood pressure; ACR: albumin:creatinine ratio; BG: blood glucose.
  2. *Statistically different from controls.
  3. #Statistically different from patients without proliferative retinopathy.
  4. aEstimated IQ was measured using the Dutch version of the National Adult Reading Test (NART).
  5. bDepressive symptoms were self-reported using the Center for Epidemiological Studies scale for Depression (CES-D).
  6. cHypertension was defined as a systolic blood pressure >140 mmHg, a diastolic blood pressure of >90, or the use of antihypertensive drugs.
  7. dEarly diabetes onset was defined as a onset before 7 years of age.
  8. eSevere hypoglycaemic events were self-reported during lifetime according to DCCT guidelines.
  9. fPeripheral neuropathy status was collected from the medical records, based on data from the annual check-up patients receive, or, if not available, was self-reported.
  10. gMicroalbuminuria was defined as an albumin-to-creatinine ratio >2.5 mg/mmol for men and >3.5 mg/mmol for women.