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Table 5 Independent correlates of coronary events

From: Hemoglobin A1c variability as an independent correlate of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional analysis of the Renal Insufficiency and Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Italian Multicenter Study

Variables Any coronary event AMI
  OR 95% CI P OR 95% CI P
Age, x year 1.015 1.007-1.023 0.003 1.025 1.015-1.034 <0.0001
Diabetes duration, x year 1.019 1.012-1.026 <0.0001 1.013 1.004-1.021 0.002
Gender, male 2.066 1.792-2.382 <0.0001 2.493 2.103-2.956 <0.0001
BMI, x unit
Smoking    <0.0001    <0.0001
  No 1.0    1.0   
  Former 1.496 1.301-1.719 <0.0001 1.560 1.327-1.834 <0.0001
  Current 1.125 0.930-1.361 0.226 1.116 0.890-1.400 0.343
Triglycerides, x 0.0113 mmol/l 3.177 2.436-4.144 <0.0001 4.297 2.994-6.116 <0.0001
HDL cholesterol, x 0.259 mmol/l 0.981 0.975-0.986 <0.0001 0.982 0.976-0.988 <0.0001
Dyslipidemia 2.076 1.710-2.521 <0.0001 2.431 1.911-3.092 <0.0001
Hypertension 0.999 0.998-1.000 0.012
Diabetes treatment, n (%)    <0.0001    <0.0001
  Diet 1.0    1.0   
  OHA 1.205 0.953-1.524 0.119 1.302 0.988-1.716 0.061
  Insulin + OHA 1.342 0.985-1.828 0.062 1.870 1.326-2.636 <0.0001
  Insulin 2.013 1.528-2.652 <0.0001 2.444 1.786-3.345 <0.0001
Albuminuria    <0.0001
  Normoalbuminuria 1.0      
  Microalbuminuria 1.405 1.187-1.665 <0.0001    
  Macroalbuminuria 1.146 0.839-1.565 0.390    
eGFR (MDRD)    <0.0001    <0.0001
  ≥90 ml/min/1.73 m2 1.0    1.0   
  6089 ml/min/1.73 m2 1.133 0.963-1.333 0.131 1.196 0.984-1.455 0.072
  3059 ml/min/1.73 m2 1.949 1.592-2.388 <0.0001 2.018 1.591-2.560 <0.0001
  <30 ml/min/1.73 m2 1.731 1.087-2.757 0.021 1.714 1.005-2.924 0.048
Retinopathy    0.016    0.049
  No retinopathy 1.0    1.0   
  Non advanced retinopathy 1.229 1.037-1.457 0.017 1.221 1.001-1.489 0.048
  Advanced retinopathy 1.255 1.018-1.547 0.033 1.260 0.991-1.603 0.060
MODEL 1       
  HbA 1c -MEAN, 1% increment 1.069 1.010-1.133 0.022
MODEL 2       
  HbA 1c -MEAN, 1% increment 1.069 1.010-1.133 0.022
  HbA 1c -SD, 1% increment
MODEL 3       
HbA 1c -MEAN    0.004    0.003
  quartile 1 1.0    1.0   
  quartile 2 0.961 0.793-1.163 0.680 0.956 0.763-1.197 0.692
  quartile 3 1.297 1.073-1.567 0.007 1.68 1.097-1.706 0.005
  quartile 4 1.159 0.950-1.414 0.146 1.075 0.849-1.360 0.549
HbA 1c -SD quartiles
  1. Logistic regression analysis with backward variables selection of independent correlates of any coronary event and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) versus no CVD. ORs of variables except HbA1c-MEAN, Hb-A1c-SD and their quartiles were determined by multivariate logistic analysis from MODEL 1. The results did not change significantly in MODEL 2 and MODEL 3.