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Table 2 Complications and treatments in study subjects

From: Hemoglobin A1c variability as an independent correlate of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional analysis of the Renal Insufficiency and Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Italian Multicenter Study

Variables CVD no CVD yes P
n (%) 6,157 (74.3) 2,133 (25.7)  
Albuminuria, mg/24 hours 60.6±275.6 125.6±554.8 <0.0001
12.6 (6.2-28.1) 17.4 (8.1-54.0)
Serum creatinine, μmol/l 82.2±31.8 94.6±39.8 <0.0001
77.8 (65.4-90.2) 85.7 (72.5-106.1)
eGFR MDRD , ml/min/1.73 m 2 80.1±22.1 71.7±23.2 <0.0001
79.0 (66.3-92.9) 72.2 (55.9-86.8)
eGFR CKD-EPI , ml/min/1.73 m 2 81.8±19.4 71.7±21.5 <0.0001
84.4 (69.1-94.6) 74.8 (56.4-88.7)
Albuminuria    <0.0001
  Normoalbuminuria 4,687 (76.1) 1,366 (64.0)  
  Microalbuminuria 1,227 (19.9) 602 (28.2)  
  Macroalbuminuria 243 (3.9) 408 (7.7)  
eGFR (MDRD)    <0.0001
  ≥90 ml/min/1.73 m2 1,824 (29.6) 424 (19.9)  
  6089 ml/min/1.73 m2 3,349 (54.4) 1,051 (49.3)  
  3059 ml/min/1.73 m2 915 (14.9) 586 (27.5)  
  <30 ml/min/1.73 m2 69 (1.1) 72(3.4)  
CKD phenotype    <0.0001
  no CKD 4,081 (66.3) 1,038 (48.7)  
  stages 1–2 CKD 1,092 (17.7) 437 (20.5)  
  stage ≥3 CKD nonalbuminuric 606 (9.8) 328 (15.4)  
  stage ≥3 CKD albuminuric 378 (6.1) 330 (15.5)  
Retinopathy, n (%)    <0.0001
  No retinopathy 4,841 (78.6) 1,428 (66.9)  
  Non-advanced retinopathy 841 (13.7) 429 (20.1)  
  Advanced retinopathy 475 (7.7) 276 (12.9)  
Any coronary event, n (%) 1,373 (64.4)
Acute myocardial infarction, n (%) 949 (44.5)
Any cerebrovascular event, n (%) 902 (42.3)
Stroke, n (%) 257 (12.0)
Any lower limb vascular event, n (%) 584 (27.4)
Ulceration/gangrene, n (%) 319 (15.0)
Diabetes treatment, n (%)    <0.0001
  Diet 729 (11.8) 151 (7.1)  
  OHA 4,051 (65.8) 4,353 (59.9)  
  Insulin + OHA 570 (9.3) 205 (9.6)  
  Insulin 807 (13.1) 500 (23.4)  
Lipid-lowering treatment, n (%) 2,681 (43.5) 1,435 (67.3) <0.0001
Anti-hypertensive treatment, n (%) 4,232 (68.7) 1,850 (86.7) <0.0001
ACE-I/ARB treatment, n (%) 3,522 (57.2) 1,469 (68.9) <0.0001
  1. Prevalence of micro and macrovascular complications and type and rate of treatments in individuals with or without prior CVD event(s). Values are mean±SD and median (interquartile range) for continuous variables and n (%) for categorical variables; P values for comparison between groups using the Student’s t test for parametric or the corresponding Mann–Whitney U test for nonparametric (albuminuria, serum creatinine and eGFR) continuous variables, and the χ2 test for categorical variables.