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Table 1 CVD risk factors in study subjects

From: Hemoglobin A1c variability as an independent correlate of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional analysis of the Renal Insufficiency and Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Italian Multicenter Study

Variables CVD no CVD yes P
n (%) 6,157 (74.3) 2,133 (25.7)  
Males (%) 3,300 (53.6) 1,426 (66.9) <0.0001
Age, years 66.4±10.0 69.6±9.3 <0.0001
67 (60–73) 70 (63–76)
Age at diabetes diagnosis, years 52.0±10.6 51.2±10.9 0.003
52 (45–59) 51 (44–58)
Diabetes duration, years 14.5±10.0 18.4±10.4 <0.0001
12 (6–21) 18 (10–26)
Smoking, n (%)    <0.0001
  Never 3,478 (56.5) 1,006 (47.2)  
  Former 1,739 (28.2) 817 (38.3)  
  Current 940 (15.3) 310 (14.5)  
Current HbA 1c , % 7.57±1.36 7.86±1.40 <0.0001
7.42 (6.70-8.28) 7.66 (6.92-8.59)
HbA 1c -MEAN, % 7.63±1.19 7.88±1.21 <0.0001
7.49 (6.81-8.31) 7.78 (7.04-8.56)
HbA 1c -SD, % 0.59±0.48 0.60±0.47 0.105
0.46 (0.28-0.73) 0.47 (0.29-0.75)
HbA 1c -CV, % 7.57±5.52 7.45±5.17 0.936
6.06 (3.94-9.37) 6.17 (3.96-9.33)
Adj-HbA 1c -SD, % 0.52±0.42 0.53±0.41 0.058
0.40 (0.26-0.67) 0.42 (0.26-0.67)
BMI, kg/m 2    
  Males 28.2±4.3 28.6±4.5 0.017
27.7 (25.2-30.6) 28.1 (25.4-31.0)
  Females 29.4±5.7 29.5±5.8 0.820
28.7 (25.5-32.5) 28.8 (25.5-32.8)
Triglycerides, mmol/l 1.52±0.90 1.58±0.94 0.016
1.30 (0.95-1.83) 1.35 (0.98-1.92)
Total cholesterol, mmol/l 4.82±0.93 4.56±0.95 <0.0001
4.76 (4.20-5.39) 4.77 (3.91-5.12)
HDL cholesterol, mmol/l    
  Males 1.25±0.33 1.19±0.31 <0.0001
1.22 (1.01-1.45) 1.14 (0.97-1.35)
  Females 1.41±0.37 1.33±0.33 <0.0001
1.35 (1.14-1.59) 1.28 (1.09-1.52)
LDL cholesterol, mmol/l 2.81±0.80 2.61±0.81 <0.0001
2.77 (2.36-4.01) 2.54 (2.05-3.07)
Non-HDL cholesterol, mmol/l 3.50±0.90 3.33±0.90 <0.0001
3.42 (2.82-3.98) 3.22 (2.69-3.83)
Dyslipidemia, n (%) 5,032 (81.7) 1,871 (87.7) <0.0001
Systolic BP, mmHg 139.8±18.0 138.9±19.1 0.050
140 (130–150) 140 (125–150)
Diastolic BP, mmHg 78.9±9.1 77.4±9.4 <0.0001
80 (71–85) 80 (70–82)
Hypertension, n (%) 5,121 (83.2) 1,987 (93.2) <0.0001
  1. Prevalence of CVD risk factors in individuals with or without prior CVD event(s). Values are mean±SD and median (interquartile range) for continuous variables and n (%) for categorical variables; P values for comparison between groups using the Student’s t test for parametric or the corresponding Mann–Whitney U test for nonparametric (HbA1c-SD, HbA1c-CV, Adj- HbA1c-SD, and triglycerides) continuous variables, and the χ2 test for categorical variables.