The effect of TRPV1 activation on the production of ROS and NO through the PKA/UCP2 pathway. A and B: Representative western blot images (A) and summary data (B) showing P22phox protein level in endothelial cells cultured with normal-glucose (NG, glucose 5.5 mmol/L), high-glucose (HG, glucose 30 mmol/L), HG+capsaicin (HG+Cap, Cap 1 μmol/L), HG+Cap+5’-iodo-resiniferatoxin (HG+Cap+iRTX, iRTX 1 μmol/L), HG+Cap+KT5720 (2 μmol/L), HG+Cap+Genipin (10 μmol/L). ##P <0.01 versus NG group; **P <0.01 versus HG group; ΔΔP <0.01 versus HG+Cap group; Data are mean ± SEM. Each n = 3. C-F: Representative endothelial cells stained by DHE (C and E) and DAF-2 DA (D and F) cultured with NG, HG, HG+Cap, HG+Cap+iRTX, HG+Cap+KT5720, HG+Cap+Genipin. ##P <0.01 versus NG group; **P <0.01 versus HG group; ΔΔP <0.01 versus HG+Cap group. Data are mean ± SEM from 4 independent experiments. The scale bar indicates 50 μm.