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Table 3 Means or medians by serum 25 (OH)D status and regression coefficients of serum 25(OH)D on metabolic variables

From: Lipoprotein lipase links vitamin D, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional epidemiological study

Dependent variables Serum 25 (OH)D statusa Regression model 1b Regression model 2c
  Deficiency (<20 ng/ml) Insufficiency (20-29 ng/ml) Sufficiency (>30 ng/ml) β P β P
Subjects (n) 422 1602 684     
FG, mmol/L 5.3 (3.6-11.5)* 5.0 (3.1-9.3) 4.9 (2.7-8.8) −0.086 0.011 −0.055 0.034
PG, mmol/L 8.5 (3.7-13.9)* 7.8 (3.5-12.4) 7.7 (3.2-12.1) −0.091 0.002 −0.058 0.027
HbAlc, % 4.4 (3.3-11.5)** 4.2 (3.2-11.8)** 4.0 (3.3-11.6) −0.120 <0.001 −0.082 0.012
Insulin, mU/L 5.9 (1.5-16.9) 6.1 (1.4-17.8) 6.0 (1.6-18.1) −0.045 0.051 −0.042 0.058
HOMA-IR 1.5 (0.3-6.5)** 1.4 (0.3-6.1)* 1.3 (0.3-5.8) −0.127 <0.001 −0.048 0.047
TC, mmol/L 5.0 ± 1.2 4.8 ± 1.3 4.8 ± 1.2 −0.014 0.532 −0.015 0.525
TG, mmol/L 1.8 (0.8-6.3)* 1.6 (0.5-6.1) 1.5 (0.6-5.8) −0.093 0.001 −0.043 0.056
HDL-C, mmol/L 1.4 (0.7-2.2)* 1.5 (0.8-2.4) 1.5 (0.8-2.3) 0.117 <0.001 0.084 0.011
LDL-C, mmol/L 3.0 (0.8-5.3) 2.9 (0.7-5.2) 2.9 (0.5-5.5) −0.021 0.431 −0.018 0.513
apoA, mmol/L 1.9 ± 0.4* 2.0 ± 0.4 2.0 ± 0.3 0.089 0.005 0.052 0.028
apoB, mmol/L 0.8 ± 0.2 0.8 ± 0.3 0.8 ± 0.2 0.024 0.353 0.022 0.358
FFAs, μmol/L 778.6 ± 284.8** 734.5 ± 306.4* 672.8 ± 297.5 −0.145 <0.001 −0.077 0.021
LPL, U/L 615.3 ± 192.4** 658.8 ± 196.6* 691.2 ± 194.1 0.168 <0.001 NA NA
  1. a Means ± SD or medians ( range). * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, compared with vitamin D sufficiency group by ANCOVA, adjusted for age, sex, BMI, physical activity level, smoking and alcohol consumption.
  2. b Multivariable linear regression analyses model 1, with 25(OH)D concentration as the independent variable, adjusted for age, sex, BMI, physical activity level, smoking and alcohol consumption.
  3. c Multivariable linear regression analyses model 2, with 25(OH)D concentration as the independent variable adjusted for covariates in model 1 + LPL.
  4. Abbreviations: FFAs, free fatty acids; FG, fasting serum glucose; LPL, lipoprotein lipase; PAL, Physical activity level; PG: 2 h post-load glucose; TC, total cholesterol; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; TG, triglyceride; β, regression coefficients.