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Table 2 Echocardiographic parameters in the population according to the absence or presence of diabetes

From: The activity of circulating dipeptidyl peptidase-4 is associated with subclinical left ventricular dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Parameters Non-diabetic subjects Diabetic patients p value
(n = 59) (n = 83)
LV Morphology    
LVEDVindex (mL/m2) 64.9 ± 14.8 63.9 ± 15.3 0.714
LVESVindex (mL/m2) 22.5 ± 7.8 23.1 ± 8.6 0.695
IVSTd (mm) 10 (8-11) 10 (9-12) 0.033
PWTd (mm) 10 (9-12) 11 (10-12) 0.448
RWT 0.40 ± 0.06 0.44 ± 0.08 0.026
Prevalence of LV concentric geometry (n, %) 21, 36 49, 59 0.008
LVM/BSA (g/m2) 94.3 (80.1-126) 105 (87.8-127) 0.228
Prevalence of LVH (n, %) 27, 46 37, 44 0.510
Observed/predicted LVM (%) 118 ± 31 133 ± 34.7 0.025
Prevalence of inappropriate LVM (n, %) 16, 27 43, 52 0.007
LA Morphology    
LA long-axis (cm) 4.9 ± 0.7 5.2 ± 0.8 0.021
LA minor-axis (cm) 3.7 ± 0.7 3.8 ± 0.7 0.385
LA ap (cm) 3.6 ± 0.7 3.7 ± 0.8 0.448
LA volume index (mL/m2) 19.2 (14.6-25.1) 18.1 (14.9-27.6) 0.863
Prevalence of LA enlargement (n,%) 7, 12 19, 23 0.093
LV diastolic function    
E (cm/s) 74.6 ± 15.2 78.1 ± 20.1 0.353
A (cm/s) 84.3 ± 18.9 88.4 ± 19.5 0.241
E/A ratio 0.91 ± 0.23 0.83 ± 0.16 0.042
IVRT (ms) 110 (90-121) 100 (90-120) 0.113
DT (ms) 220 (180-258) 220 (190-260) 0.811
e' (cm/s) 9.1 ± 2.5 8.3 ± 2.4 0.151
E/e' 8.5 (6.6-10.5) 9.3 (7.6-12) 0.046
a' (cm/s) 10.4 ± 2.8 11.4 ± 3 0.088
e'/a' 0.74 (0.58-1.2) 0.66 (0.54-0.78) 0.028
Prevalence of LV diastolic dysfunction (n, %) 3, 5.2 30, 36.6 <0.001
LV systolic function    
LVSWi (g/cm-2) 85.2 ± 13.8 78.9 ± 15.6 0.017
LVEF (%) 65.1 ± 6.7 62.2 ± 6.2 0.010
FS (%) 35.9 ± 5.1 33.5 ± 4.8 0.007
MFS (%) 16.8 ± 3 15.8 ± 2.6 0.045
cESS (kdyne/cm2) 142 (117-176) 139 (118-175) 0.854
mESS (kdyne/cm2) 77.3 ± 18.5 73.1 ± 20.2 0.213
cESS-MFS (%) 99.9 ± 18 94.1 ± 14.8 0.042
mESS/LVESVi (107 dyne/cm3) 3.3 (2.4-4.8) 2.9 (2.1-2.9) 0.071
Prevalence of LV systolic dysfunction (n, %) 4, 6.8 17, 20.5 0.019
  1. LV means left ventricular; LVEDVi, LV end-diastolic volume index; LVESVi, LV end-systolic volume index; IVSTd, interventricular septum thickness in diastole; PWTd, posterior wall thickness in diastole; RWT, relative wall thickness; LVM, LV mass; BSA, body surface area; LVH, left ventricular hypertrophy; LA, left atrial; E, maximum early transmitral velocity in diastole; A, maximum late transmitral velocity in diastole; IVRT, isovolumic relaxation time; DT, deceleration time; e’, early mitral annulus velocity; a’, late mitral annulus velocity; LVSWi, LV stroke work index; LVEF, LV ejection fraction; FS, subendocardial fractional shortening; MFS, midwall fractional shortening; cESS, circumferential end-systolic stress; mESS, meridional end-systolic stress. Values are expressed as mean ± SD or median (interquartile range), and categorical variables as numbers and percentages.