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Table 3 Hypoglycaemia-mediated effects contributing to cardiovascular dysfunction

From: Cardiac implications of hypoglycaemia in patients with diabetes – a systematic review

Risk factor Hypoglycaemic-associated effect contributing to risk factor Reference(s)
Thrombotic tendency ↑ platelet-monocyte aggregation [14]
  ↑ soluble P-selectin levels [14, 48]
  ↑ plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 [48]
  ↓ partial thromboplastin time [49]
  ↑ fibrinogen and factor VIII [49]
Abnormal cardiac repolarization ↑ catecholamines (hypokalaemia) [14, 5052]
Inflammation ↑ QT interval and QT dispersal [13, 5356]
  ↑ CD40 expression on monocytes [14]
  ↑ soluble CD40L in serum [14]
  ↑ IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, and IL-1β [5760]
  ↑ ICAM, VCAM, E-selectin, and VEGF [48, 57]
Atherosclerosis ↑ inflammation see above
  ↑ endothelial dysfunction [14, 57, 60]
  ↑ oxidative stress [57]
  ↑ Aldosterone [61]
  ↑ ICAM, VCAM, and E-selectin [48]