Skip to main content

Table 2 Clinical characteristics of the subjects stratified by the combination of the ALDH2 genotype and the serum GGT level at baseline

From: Association between aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 polymorphisms and the incidence of diabetic retinopathy among Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus

GGT levels Low High P-value
ALDH2 genotype *1/*1 *2 allele *1/*1 *2 allele
(n = 58) (n = 85) (n = 59) (n = 32)
Female (%) 37.9 28.8 31.8 37.5 0.69
Age (years) 57.6 ± 11.0 60.3 ± 9.7 57.5 ± 12.4 56.9 ± 11.0 0.40
Age of diagnosis (years) 47.5 ± 10.9 51.9 ± 11.1 49.4 ± 12.2 51.1 ± 9.2 0.18
Diabetes duration (years) 10.0 ± 8.7 8.3 ± 5.4 7.9 ± 7.0 6.1 ± 5.2 0.07
BMI (kg/m2) 23.2 ± 3.6 23.2 ± 2.9 24.8 ± 4.2 25.8 ± 4.0 < 0.01
Casual plasma glucose (mmol/L) 10.9 ± 4.6 11.4 ± 5.0 11.7 ±5.9 11.6 ± 3.4 0.85
HbA1c (%) 8.4 ± 2.1 8.5 ± 2.2 8.7 ± 2.1 9.2 ± 1.8 0.36
Systolic BP (mmHg) 133.5 ± 19.5 131.5 ± 20.8 141.7 ± 17.5 143.7 ± 20.7 < 0.01
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 80.9 ± 10.9 79.5 ± 12.3 86.2 ± 12.0 87.4 ± 11.8 < 0.01
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.3 ± 0.9 1.6 ± 1.5 2.6 ± 2.4 1.9 ± 0.8 < 0.01
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.6 ± 0.5 1.4 ± 0.4 1.4 ± 0.3 1.4 ± 0.3 0.08
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 3.1 ± 0.7 3.2 ± 0.7 3.1 ± 0.8 3.4 ± 0.8 0.21
AST (IU/L) 21.0 ± 5.1 21.6 ± 5.3 39.5 ± 24.4 37.7 ± 20.7 < 0.01
ALT (IU/L) 20.9 ± 9.2 20.7 ± 7.2 49.7 ± 37.8 50.3 ± 36.4 < 0.01
GGT (IU/L) 20.8 ± 7.9 21.4 ± 7.8 77.7 ± 78.7 60.6 ± 37.8 < 0.01
Hypertension (%) 44.8 42.4 64.7 68.8 < 0.01
Dyslipidemia (%) 56.9 64.4 75.3 71.9 0.12
Ever smoker (%) 48.2 43.1 54.2 50.0 0.64
Drinker (%) 56.9 30.5 72.9 28.1 < 0.01
Therapy components      
Hypoglycemic agents      
Oral hypoglycemic agents (%) 72.4 67.8 64.3 75.0 0.65
Insulin (%) 22.4 10.2 7.1 3.1 0.02
Antihypertensive agents      
ACE inhibitors or ARBs (%) 10.3 6.8 13.1 34.4 < 0.01
Others (%) 19.0 11.9 21.4 28.1 0.25
Agents for hyperlipidemia      
Fibrates (%) 1.7 1.7 2.4 0.0 1.00
Statins (%) 3.4 11.9 9.5 9.4 0.37
Others (%) 0.0 1.7 0.0 0.0 0.64
  1. Data are percentages or mean ± standard deviation.
  2. GGT was dichotomized by the near-median 37 IU/L for the males and 26 IU/L for the females.
  3. ALDH2, aldehyde dehydrogenase 2; GGT, γ-glutamyltransferase; BMI, body mass index; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; BP, blood pressure; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; ACE, angiotensin converting enzyme; ARB, angiotensin II receptor blocker.