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Table 3 Blood pressure variables given as adjusted estimated means for type 1 diabetes patients

From: 24-hour central aortic systolic pressure and 24-hour central pulse pressure are related to diabetic complications in type 1 diabetes – a cross-sectional study

  Controls Normoalbuminuria Elevated albuminuria Controls vs. short duration, normo-albuminuria Long duration, normo-vs. micro- vs. macroalbuminuria
   Short duration Long duration Micro Macro p p
n = 86 n = 69 n = 211 n = 163 n = 186
24 h-CASP (mmHg) 117 (116–119) 118 (117–119) 119 (118–120) 121 (120–121) 122 (121–122) 0.39 <0.001
Daytime CASP (mmHg) 122 (120–123) 122 (121–123) 121 (121–122) 123 (123–124) 125 (124–126) 0.60 <0.001
Nighttime CASP (mmHg) 109 (107–111) 110 (109–112) 112 (111–114) 114 (113–115) 116 (115–117) 0.30 <0.001
Office CASP (mmHg) 110 (107–112) 111 (109–113) 119 (117–121) 120 (118–122) 118 (115–120) 0.44 0.41
24 h-CPP (mmHg) 38 (36–40) 39 (37–41) 43 (42–44) 46 (44–47) 47 (46–49) 0.59 <0.001
Daytime CPP (mmHg) 39 (37–41) 40 (38–41) 43 (42–45) 46 (45–48) 48 (46–49) 0.74 <0.001
Nighttime CPP (mmHg) 36 (34–38) 37 (35–39) 41 (40–43) 44 (43–45) 46 (44–47) 0.54 <0.001
24 h brachial SBP (mmHg) 126 (125–128) 126 (125–128) 128 (126–129) 130 (127–131) 131 (130–132) 0.98 <0.001
Daytime brachial SBP (mmHg) 132 (129–134) 132 (130–134) 132 (130–134) 134 (133–135) 135 (134–136) 0.90 0.001
Nighttime brachial SBP (mmHg) 116 (114–118) 117 (115–119) 119 (118–121) 122 (120–123) 123 (122–125) 0.56 0.001
24 h-MAP (mmHg) 92 (89–95) 92 (90–95) 95 (94–97) 92 (90–93) 92 (90–94) 0.80 0.004
24 h heart rate (beats per minute) 65 (63–67) 67 (66–69) 72 (70–73) 70 (68–71) 73 (71–74) 0.08 0.005
  1. Estimated marginal means with 95% confidence intervals. P-values are for adjusted comparisons (ANCOVA) of controls to patients with short duration of normoalbuminuria or for comparison between patients with longstanding normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria. Adjustments were made for gender, age, 24 h-MAP (except for 24 h-MAP), 24 h HR, eGFR and smoking. Adjustments also included HbA1c and antihypertensive treatment when comparing patients with normoalbuminuria and long diabetes duration, microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria.
  2. CASP: central aortic systolic pressure, CPP: central pulse pressure, SBP: systolic blood pressure, MAP: mean arterial pressure, microalbuminuria: 30-299 mg/24 h, macroalbuminuria > 300 mg/24 h.