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Table 1 Group comparisons of metabolic parameters at different time points

From: Vitamin D supplementation in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 on different therapeutic regimens: a one-year prospective study

  Control Rosiglitazone Diet Insulin Insulin + Orals Metformin Oral agents combination Sulphonylurea
N 151 49 15 55 12 121 37 59
Gender (M/F) 72/79 48/1 4/11 30/25 6/6 65/56 16/21 26/33
Obesity (%) 41.3 51.1 66.7 73.8 66.7 57.3 79.4 48.9
Hypertension (%) 21.9 38.8 26.7 29.1 29.1 32.2 25.0 27.1
Dyslipidemia (%) 0.7 16.3 6.7 14.5 8.3 12.4 2.7 10.2
25-Hydroxyvitamin D (nmol/l)
Baseline 19.4 ± 1.0 33.3 ± 1.0 24.4 ± 1.1 32.2 ± 1.0 34.1 ± 1.1 34.8 ± 1.0 34.6 ± 1.1 38.3 ± 1.0
6 months 27.4 ± 1.0* 47.8 ± 1.1* 34.3 ± 1.2 55.7 ± 1.1* 55.8 ± 1.1* 62.4 ± 1.1* 46.0 ± 1.1 51.2 ± 1.1*
12 months 25.8 ± 1.1* 49.9 ± 1.2* 26.7 ± 1.3 46.1 ± 1.1* 48.1 ± 1.2* 55.3 ± 1.1* 46.8 ± 1.1 46.8 ± 1.1*
% Change at 6 months C 34.3 (12.0, 56.6)a 36 (10.2, 61.8)b 34.1 (−9.3, 72.3) 54.3 (25.0, 83.7)b 49.1 (−3.2, 68.3) 62.6 (39.1, 86.1) a 28.5 (−7.3, 64.4) 28.8 (2.2, 55.4)b
% Change at 12 months C 28.6 (6.0, 51.4) a 40 (3.2, 77.3)a 9.2 (−12.8,65.3) 35.6 (3.2, 68.0)a 34.3 (−2.1, 69.7) 50.6 (23.4, 77.9) a 30.2 (−14.0,74.4) 19.8 (−13.2, 52.9)a
P-value (groups) < 0.001; P-value (time) < 0.001; P-Value (interaction) = 0.04
Systolic BP (mmHg)
Baseline 115.6 ± 1.1 129.0 ± 1.0 124.2 ± 1.0 126.5 ± 1.0 129.1 ± 1.0 126.1 ± 1.0 134.1 ± 1.1 126.5 ± 1.0
6 months 113.3 ± 1.1 130.0 ± 1.0 124.3 ± 1.0 123.5 ± 1.0 132.5 ± 1.0 124.8 ± 1.0 131.1 ± 1.0 129.7 ± 1.0
12 months 115.4 ± 1.1 130.9 ± 1.0 130.0 ± 1.1 128.1 ± 1.0 130.5 ± 1.0 127.4 ± 1.1 127.7 ± 1.0 127.9 ± 1.0
% Change at 6 months C −2.4 (−8.8, 3.8) 1.4 (−5.8, 8.7) 0.0 −2.4 (−10.4, 5.5) 2.1 (−12.2, 16.6) −1.0 (−6.3,4.3) −2.2 (−11.6, 7.1) 2.5 (−4.9, 9.9)
% Change at 12 months C 0.2 (−7.0, 6.7) 0.9 (−8.1, 10.0) 4.7 (−24.8, 34.2) 1.1 (−8.8, 11.1) 0.6 (−16.0, 17.3) 1.0 (−5.2, 7.4) −4.8 (−16.5, 6.7) 1.1 (−7.8, 10.0)
P-value (groups) < 0.001; P-value (time) = 0.51; P-Value (interaction) = 0.71
Diastolic BP (mmHg)
Baseline 74.5 ± 1.0 71.5 ± 1.0 77.4 ± 1.2 78.2 ± 1.0 75.6 ± 1.0 80.5 ± 1.2 77.5 ± 1.0 79.8 ± 1.1
6 months 72.9 ± 1.0 81.2 ± 1.0* 73.0 ± 1.1 76.7 ± 1.0 79.8 ± 1.1 78.1 ± 1.1 82.3 ± 1.1 77.8 ± 1.0
12 months 73.5 ± 1.0 84.3 ± 1.1* 73.0 ± 1.1 78.2 ± 1.0 80.4 ± 1.2 79.5 ± 1.1 79.5 ± 1.1 81.3 ± 1.1
% Change at 6 months C −1.9 (−11.0, 7.2) 11.9 (1.3, 22.5) −6.8 (−32.1, 18.4) −1.7 (−13.3, 9.8) 5.4 (−15.5, 26.4) −3.1 (−10.8, 4.7) 5.7 (−7.8, 19.2) −2.5 (−13.4, 8.2)
% Change at 12 months C −1.2 (−11.5, 8.9) 15.5 (2.2, 28.2) −6.8 (−49.0, 36.1) 0.0 6.2 (−17.9, 30.4) −1.3 (−10.5, 7.8) 2.2 (−14.6,19.1) 1.8 (−11.2, 14.8)
P-value (groups) < 0.001; P-value (time) = 0.54; P-Value (interaction) = 0.002
BMI (kg/m 2 )
Baseline 28.5 ± 1.1 30.1 ± 1.1 30.1 ± 1.2 33.4 ± 1.2 31.5 ± 1.0 32.4 ± 1.1 32.9 ± 1.0 32.3 ± 1.0
6 months 28.5 ± 1.1 30.1 ± 1.2 31.1 ± 1.2 35.0 ± 1.2 31.4 ± 1.0 28.2 ± 1.0 30.5 ± 1.0 32.2 ± 1.1
12 months 28.5 ± 1.1 30.1 ± 1.2 - 35.1 ± 1.3 31.6 ± 1.0 30.0 ± 1.1 32.2 ± 1.1 30.6 ± 1.2
% Change at 6 months C 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
% Change at 12 months C 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
P-value (groups) < 0.001; P-value (time) = 0.18; P-Value (interaction) = 0.36
Total Cholesterol (mmol/l)
Baseline 4.7 ± 1.0 4.8 ± 1.0 5.3 ± 1.0 5.1 ± 1.0 5.4 ± 1.0 5.3 ± 1.0 4.9 ± 1.0 5.2 ± 1.0
6 months 4.4 ± 1.0 4.4 ± 1.0 5.4 ± 1.1 4.9 ± 1.1 5.1 ± 1.1 5.2 ± 1.0 4.8 ± 1.0 5.1 ± 1.0
12 months 4.1 ± 1.0 4.1 ± 1.0 5.8 ± 1.2 4.6 ± 1.0 4.4 ± 1.2 4.9 ± 1.0 4.5 ± 1.0 5.1 ± 1.0
% Change at 6 months C −7.0 (−24.8,10.7) −7.8 (−20.5, 4.7) 2.3 (−28.0, 32.7) −2.0 (−16.1, 12.1) −5.6 (−31.1, 19.9) −0.7 (−10.1, 8.7) −2.2 (−18.9,14.4) −1.2 (−13.9, 11.3)
% Change at 12 months C −2.9 (−7.5, 13.5) −14.8 (−32.6, 2.9) 10.1 (−29.9, 50.3) −9.7 (−24.0, 5.4) −19.5 (−52.5, 13.4) −6.5 (−17.5, 4.4) −9.3 (−29.6, 11.0) −1.6 (−17.8, 14.5)
P-value (groups) < 0.001; P-value (time) = 0.01; P-Value (interaction) = 0.17
Triglycerides (mmol/l)
Baseline 1.2 ± 0.02 2.4 ± 0.04 1.6 ± 0.07 1.8 ± 0.04 2.5 ± 0.08 1.9 ± 0.03 2.0 ± 0.05 2.0 ± 0.04
6 months 1.2 ± 0.04 1.6 ± 0.04* 1.4 ± 0.13 1.8 ± 0.05 1.9 ± 0.09* 2.1 ± 0.04 1.7 ± 0.06 2.0 ± 0.04
12 months 1.2 ± 0.04 1.5 ± 0.07* 1.7 ± 0.18 1.5 ± 0.06 1.9 ± 0.14 2.0 ± 0.04 1.6 ± 0.09 2.0 ± 0.05
% Change at 6 months C 0 - 42.5 a (−18.1,-66.8) −13.1 (−71.2, 45.2) 0 −29.4 a (−78.7, 19.8) 8.4 (−9.6, 26.6) −15.0 (47.1, 17.0) 0
% Change at 12 months C 0 −39.2 a (−5.0, -73.2) 4.0 (−72.3, 82.0) −9.2 (−65.0, 83.6) −28.3 a (−91.0, 35.0) 2.7 (−18.3, 23.8) −23.4 (−62.4, 15.7) 0
P-value (groups) < 0.001; P-value (time) = 0.02; P-Value (interaction) < 0.001
HDL-Cholesterol (mmol/l)
Baseline 0.66 ± 0.03 0.95 ± 0.06 1.0 ± 0.09 1.0 ± 0.05 0.91 ± 0.10 0.93 ± 0.03 1.0 ± 0.06 0.94 ± 0.04
6 months 1.0 ± 0.06* 1.0 ± 0.14 0.93 ± 0.28 1.1 ± 0.11 0.90 ± 0.23 0.89 ± 0.07 1.1 ± 0.15 1.0 ± 0.10
12 months 0.98 ± 0.08* 0.98 ± 0.10 - 0.81 ± 0.10 1.0 ± 0.35 0.93 ± 0.09 0.99 ± 0.14 1.0 ± 0.12
% Change at 6 months C 42.7 a (16.6, 68.9) 8.3 (−49.0,65.8) −11.3 (−32.6,26.7) 1.3 (−.45.4, 48.4) 1.3 (−63.2, 56.7) −3.5 (−33.1, 26.0) 11.7 (−51.0, 74.0) 6.4 (−32.6, 45.2)
% Change at 12 months C 37.3 a (4.3, 70.3) 3.2 (−42.4,48.9) - −26.1 (−70.1, 18.6) 12.2 (−14.8, 26.3) 0.0 1.5 (−0.61, 58.3) 8.2 (−43.8, 60.2)
P-value (groups) < 0.001; P-value (time) = 0.001; P-Value (interaction) < 0.001
Glucose(mmol/l)
Baseline 5.3 ± 1.0 10.0 ± 1.1 7.1 ± 1.3 10.8 ± 1.2 12.4 ± 1.2 10.2 ± 1.0 9.4 ± 1.2 9.1 ± 1.0
6 months 5.7 ± 1.1 9.0 ± 1.0 7.7 ± 1.3 10.3 ± 1.1 10.2 ± 1.1 10.2 ± 1.0 9.1 ± 1.1 9.7 ± 1.0
12 months 5.8 ± 1.1 8.3 ± 1.0 8.2 ± 1.2 9.9 ± 1.0 10.6 ± 1.0 11.2 ± 1.1 9.6 ± 1.2 10.1 ± 1.1
% Change at 6 months C 9.3 (−11.9, 30.6) −10.5 (−35.1, 14.0) 8.6 (−50.2, 67.5) 1.7 (−29.2, 25.7) −19.6 (−69.4, 30.0) 0.8 (−17.4, 19.2) −2.7 (−35.1, 29.6) 7.0 (−17.3, 31.6)
% Change at 12 months C 9.4 (−12.3, 31.2) −18.2 (−52.8, 16.2) 12.6 (−65.1, 90.7) −6.7 (−36.3, 22.7) −15.6 (−79.6, 48.2) 9.7 (−11.2, 31.1) 2.5 (−36.9, 41.9) 10.5 (−19.7, 40.9)
P-value (groups) < 0.001; P-value (time) = 0.51; P-Value (interaction) = 0.26
  1. Data represented by Mean ± standard error; C Percent changes represent the absolute difference from baseline in the log-transformed data multiplied by 100; b p ≤ 0.001; a p ≤ 0.01; ‘*’ Represents significant difference from the baseline. Level of significance is at p ≤ 0.05.