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Table 1 Baseline characteristics* in subjects with and without metabolic syndrome, by sex

From: The metabolic syndrome and progression of carotid atherosclerosis over 13 years. The Tromsø study

  Women Men
  Metabolic syndrome Metabolic syndrome
  Yes No p Yes No p
Age 60.4 (7.3) 56.0 (10.4) <0.0001 55.5 (8.3) 56.2 (9.2) 0.3
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 153.1 (20.9) 135.6 (20.7) <0.0001 146.0 (16.2) 139.0 (18.1) <0.0001
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 86.3 (12.9) 77.9 (11.6) <0.0001 87.3 (10.6) 82.6 (11.4) <0.0001
Hypertension treatment (%) 59 (21.6) 80 (6.5) <0.0001 44 (15.9) 73 (6.4) <0.0001
Components of metabolic syndrome       
Waist circumference (cm) 93.8 (9.1) 81.35 (8.4) <0.0001 102.5 (8.4) 92.7 (7.1) <0.0001
Triglycerides (mmol/L)† 2.29 (0.87) 1.18 (0.54) <0.0001 2.63 (1.04) 1.50 (0.74) <0.0001
HDL (mmol/L) 1.37 (0.32) 1.75 (0.38) <0.0001 1.10 (0.26) 1.43 (0.34) <0.0001
Diabetes (%) 18 (6.6) 8 (0.7) <0.0001 11 (4.0) 6 (0.5) <0.0001
HbA1c % 5.68 (0.64) 5.35 (0.34) <0.0001 5.47 (0.62) 5.32 (0.39) <0.0001
Impaired glucose tolerance (yes/no) 53 (20.0) 22 (1.8) <0.0001 34 (12.45) 14 (1.22) <0.0001
Uric acid (μmol/L)† 308.75 (87) 255 (73.5) <0.0001 400.5 (106) 339 (87.5) <0.0001
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 7.22 (1.19) 6.57 (1.3) <0.0001 6.75 (1.17) 6.46 (1.1) 0.0003
LDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.84 (1.09) 4.29 (1.18) <0.0001 4.50 (1.05) 4.36 (0.99) 0.04
Daily smoking (yes/no) 59 (21.6) 364 (28.6) 0.03 73 (26.3) 333 (29.0) 0.4
Measurements of atherosclerosis      
Baseline mean IMT(mm) 0.85 (0.16) 0.77 (0.15) <0.0001 0.87 (0.17) 0.83 (0.17) 0.0008
Plaque presence (%) 132 (48.4) 383 (31.0) <0.0001 137 (49.3) 484 (421) 0.03
Baseline TPA (mm2)† 7.84 (13.75) 4.55 (9.66) <0.0001 9.48 (13.55) 7.75 (13.58) 0.05
Use of medication       
Antihypertensive (yes/no) 59 (21.6) 80 (6.5) <0.0001 44 (15.9) 73 (6.4) <0.0001
Lipid-lowering (yes/no) 20 (7.3) 3 (0.2) <0.0001 28 (10.7) 6 (0.59) <0.0001
Antidiabetic (yes/no) 10 (3.7) 4 (0.39) <0.0001 6 (2.2) 4 (0.4) 0.001
  1. * Numbers are means (SD) or numbers (%), † median (interquartile range).
  2. HDL; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. HbA1c; glycosylated hemoglobin, IMT; intima-media thickness, TPA; total plaque area.
  3. The Tromsø Study.