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Table 4 Complications of diabetes in urban and remote Indigenous Australians and remote Indigenous Canadians

From: Cardiovascular disease risk profile and microvascular complications of diabetes: comparison of Indigenous cohorts with diabetes in Australia and Canada

Complication Group 1: Remote Australian (n = 36*) Group 2: Urban
Australian (n = 99)
Group 3: Remote Canadian (n = 165) p values
     Group 1 vs 2 Group 1 vs 3 Group 2 vs 3
Peripheral neuropathy 10 (28%)** 9 (9%) 68 (47%) 0.007 0.041 < 0.001
Abnormal 10 g monofilament 7 (19%) 8 (8%) 22 (15%) 0.067 0.566 0.091
Peripheral Vascular Disease 2 (5.4%) 12 (12%) 16 (11%) 0.334 0.418 0.750
Current foot ulcer 1 (3%) 6 (6%) 7 (5%) 0.447 0.578 0.702
Lower Extremity Amputation 0 2 (2%) 0 0.390 - 0.087
Retinopathy 2 (7%) 18 (22%) 31 (24%) 0.070 0.202 0.615
Microalbuminuria †† 18 (50%) 24 (25%) 67 (41%) 0.001 0.098 0.007
Macroalbuminuria ‡‡ 8 (22%) 12 (13%) 23 (14%) 0.012 0.065 0.298
  1. Data are n (%).
  2. * n = 32 for PVD, 32 for neuropathy, 29 for retinopathy. Note methods differed for retinopathy (Table 1).
  3. n = 82 for retinopathy
  4. n = 146 for neuropathy, 145 PVD, 142 foot ulcer, 144 amputation, 124 retinopathy.
  5. **When definition of neuropathy in Group 1 is revised to be that of Group 2 then neuropathy in Group 1 is 19% (n = 6). Note methods differed for neuropathy in Group 3 (Table 1).
  6. ††Comparison across groups excludes those with macroalbuminuria
  7. ‡‡Comparison across groups excludes those with microalbuminuria