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Table 2 Characteristics of participants with known diabetes across the 3 studies

From: Cardiovascular disease risk profile and microvascular complications of diabetes: comparison of Indigenous cohorts with diabetes in Australia and Canada

  Group 1: Remote Australian (n = 37) Group 2: Urban Australian (n = 99) Group 3: Remote Canadian (n = 188) p values
     Group 1 vs 2 Group 1 vs 3 Group 2 vs 3
Age (years) 51 ± 8 53 ± 10 47 ± 13 0.25 0.078 < 0.001
Female Sex § 20 (54%) 75 (76%) 113 (60%) 0.014 0.494 0.008
Current Smoker § 17 (49%) 22 (26%) 93 (51%) 0.016 0.784 < 0.001
Diabetes Duration (years)* 6 (1 - 15) 7.5 (0 - 36) 9 (0 - 42) 0.144 0.114 0.643
Weight (kg) 76.3 ± 14.0 86.4 ± 17.2 84.1 ± 16.7 0.002 0.008 0.279
Height (cm) 168.6 ± 8.5 163.4 ± 8.4 166.5 ± 8.6 0.002 0.180 0.004
BMI (kg/m2) 26.7 ± 3.8 32.4 ± 6.1 30.2 ± 5.3 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.003
Waist (cm) 101.0 ± 9.7 108.8 ± 12.6 103.5 ± 10.8 0.001 0.199 < 0.001
Hip (cm) 98.0 ± 8.0 110.6 ± 13.4 110.5 ± 11.5 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.968
WHR 1.03 ± 0.07 0.99 ± 0.09 0.94 ± 0.07 0.014 < 0.001 < 0.001
Heart Rate (bpm) 76 ± 11 76 ± 11 71 ± 10 0.820 0.021 < 0.001
Systolic BP(mmHg) 131 ± 26 128 ± 18 125 ± 17 0.408 0.065 0.183
Diastol BP(mmHg) 76 ± 11 78 ± 10 74 ± 9 0.2112 0.315 < 0.001
HbA1c (%) 8.7 (7.8-9.6) 8.1 (7.7 - 8.4) 8.0 (7.7 - 8.3) 0.123 0.111 0.751
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.8 (4.5-5.0) 5.0 (4.8-5.3) 4.8 (4.6 - 4.9) 0.253 0.972 0.061
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 2.4 (2.0-2.8) 2.4 (2.1 - 2.8) 1.7 (1.6 - 1.9) 0.935 < 0.001 < 0.001
HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) 0.82 (0.76-0.89) 0.96 (0.91-1.02) 1.17 (1.11-1.23) 0.006 < 0.001 < 0.001
Creatinine (umol/L) - 72.7 (67.8-77.9) 62.8 (60.1-65.8) - - < 0.001
eGFR (MDRD) - 83.6 (77.6-90.1) 107.1 (102-112) - - < 0.001
CRP (mg/L) 6.6 (4.7 - 9.3) 6.8 (5.7 - 8.1) 3.1 (2.6 - 3.6) 0.870 < 0.001 < 0.001
Homocysteine (umol/L) 12.4(10.8-14) 10.2 (9.5-11.1) 7.1 (6.8 - 7.5) 0.016 < 0.001 < 0.001
Urine ACR (mg/mmol) 10.3(5.7-18.5) 2.4 (1.6-3.8) 4.5 (3.6 - 5.6) 0.004 0.003 0.007
  1. Data are mean ± standard deviation unless stated otherwise. Biochemistry is fasting.
  2. §Data are n(%). *Data are median (range). Data are geometric mean (95% confidence interval).
  3. BMI, body mass index; WHR, waist-hip ratio; BP, blood pressure; Diastol, diastolic; eGFR (MDRD), estimated glomerular filtration rate (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula); CRP, C-reactive protein; ACR, albumin-creatinine ratio.