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Table 1 Comparison of methods in the three studies

From: Cardiovascular disease risk profile and microvascular complications of diabetes: comparison of Indigenous cohorts with diabetes in Australia and Canada

Measure Remote Australian Urban Australian Remote Canadian
Dates 2002-2003 2003-2005 2001-2002
Waist Measured at the point midway between the lowest rib margin and iliac crest, using a non-stretch tape measure in a horizontal plane at the end of expiration Measured at the point midway between the lowest rib margin and iliac crest, using a non-stretch tape measure in a horizontal plane at the end of expiration Measured at the natural indentation between the umbilicus and xiphoid process as viewed from behind; using an inelastic tape in horizontal plane over light clothing
Hip Measured at the point yielding the maximum circumference over the buttocks with the tape in a horizontal plane over very light clothing Measured at the point yielding the maximum circumference over the buttocks with the tape in a horizontal plane over very light clothing Measured at the point of maximum extension of the buttocks as viewed from the side; using an inelastic tape in horizontal plane over light clothing
Weight Digital portable scale Seca digital portable scale (Model 767, Seca Deutschland, Hamburg, Germany) Balance beam scale (Health-o-meter Inc, Bridgeview, USA)
Blood pressure & pulse Automated Dinamap (Critikon XL, Johnson and Johnson, USA) Welch Allyn Spot Vital signs monitor (Welch Allyn Medical Products, Skaneateles Falls, USA) Hand-held aneroid sphygmomanometer
Lipids Hitachi 917 (standard automated colorimetric methods using commercial reagents) Hitachi 917 enzymatic Dextran sulfate - magnesium precipitation of non-HDL cholesterol. Technicon RA-1000 and Technicon reagents for measurement of cholesterol and triglyceride
HbA1c Cation exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a Pharmacia MonoS column (results traceable to DCCT method) Cation exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a Pharmacia MonoS column (results traceable to DCCT method) Bayer DCA point-of-care
Serum creatinine Not performed Kinetic Jaffe (Hitachi 917), prior to introduction of creatinine assays traceable to IDMS Jaffe (Beckman Coulter Synchron LX20), prior to introduction of creatinine assays traceable to IDMS
Urine albumin Immunonephelometry (Beckman array 360) Immunonephelometry (Beckman array 360) Bayer DCA point-of-care
Urine creatinine Kinetic Jaffe (Hitachi 917) Kinetic Jaffe (Hitachi 917) Bayer DCA point-of-care
Homocys-teine HPLC after conversion to a fluorescent derivative with ABDF (7-Fluoro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole-4-sulfonamide) HPLC after conversion to a fluorescent derivative with ABDF (7-Fluoro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole-4-sulfonamide) Abbot IMx
CRP High sensitivity commercial assay (BN-II Nephelometer; Dade Behring Diagnostics, Lane Cove NSW; intra and inter assay CVs of 1.9% and 4.4% respectively, with a lower limit of detection of 0.16 mg/L). High sensitivity, immunoturbidimetry (Hitachi 917) High sensitivity, Dade-Behring, BN-100 Nephelometer.
Neuropathy Peripheral neuropathy was defined as present if two or more of the following were abnormal: pressure perception test (monofilament), vibration sensation (128 Hz tuning fork), pain sensation, temperature sensation, ankle deep tendon reflexes [14] Peripheral neuropathy was defined as present if two or more of the following were abnormal: modified neuropathy symptom score; modified neuropathy disability score; pressure perception test; fall in systolic blood pressure of ≥ 20 mmHg after standing for 60s [15] Modified Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (modification involved addition of monofilament and removal of questionnaire component). Scores range from 0 to 9, and neuropathy defined as present if score > 2.
Retinopathy Determined from chart review Digital retinal photographs, Topcon non-mydriatic retinal camera (Model TRC-NW5, Topcon Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). Images graded by a single ophthalmologist at the Centre for Eye Research Australia (Melbourne, Australia) according to simplified Wisconsin scale: no diabetic retinopathy (DR), mild or moderate non-proliferative DR (NPDR), severe NPDR or proliferative DR, fundus pathology other than DR. Retinopathy includes NPDR or PDR in 1 or both eyes. Digital retinal photographs, Topcon non-mydriatic retinal camera (Model TRC-NW100, Topcon Canada, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada). Images graded at the Ocular Epidemiology Grading Centre at the University of Wisconsin according to scale of mild NPDR, moderate or severe NPDR, proliferative DR or macula edema.
PVD: Ankle Brachial Pressure Index Doppler (Hadeco Bidirectional Smartdop 20; Hayashi Denki Co. Ltd., Kawasaki, Japan) and manual anaeroid sphygmomanometer (Welch Allyn Medical Products, Skaneateles Falls, USA) Doppler probe (Dopplex High Sensitivity Pocket Doppler Model D900, Huntleigh Healthcare Pty Ltd, Hamilton Hill, WA, Australia) and manual anaeroid sphygmomanometer (Welch Allyn Medical Products, Skaneateles Falls, USA) Doppler stethoscope and manual anaeroid sphygmomanometer.