Skip to main content

Table 1 Clinical and laboratory characteristics of individuals with type 1 diabetes, divided by HbA1 c quintiles

From: Heterogeneous behavior of lipids according to HbA1c levels undermines the plausibility of metabolic syndrome in type 1 diabetes: data from a nationwide multicenter survey

  HbA1c quintiles  
  1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th  
  ≤ 7.4% 7.5 - 8.5% 8.6 - 9.6% 9.7 - 11.4% ≥ 11.5% p
n 255 258 255 255 252  
Age (years) 26.1 ± 12.0 26.7 ± 11.6 25.2 ± 11.4 23.9 ± 10.5 20.9 ± 9.1 < 0.05a
Duration of diabetes (years) 12.2 ± 10.1 12.9 ± 8.7 11.9 ± 7.9 10.5 ± 7.5 8.9 ± 6.4 < 0.05b
Total daily insulin dose (U) 45.6 ± 19.9 52.7 ± 22.8 55.2 ± 20.0 58.5 ± 21.5 62.1 ± 23.5 < 0.05c
BMI (kg/m2) 22.5 ± 3.7 23.2 ± 3.9 23.1 ± 3.9 22.8 ± 4.4 21.7 ± 3.8 < 0.05d
HbA1c (%) 6.6 ± 0.64 8.0 ± 0.32 9.1 ± 0.33 10.5 ± 0.55 13.6 ± 1.77 < 0.05e
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L) 7.77 ± 4.12 9.30 ± 5.23 10.68 ± 5.81 11.22 ± 5.81 12.96 ± 7.37 < 0.05f
Mean Blood Pressure (mmHg) 101.9 ± 12.8 100.9 ± 12.9 102.1 ± 13.4 101.2 ± 13.2 99.7 ± 12.8 NS
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.08 ± 1.03 4.21 ± 1.05 4.34 ± 1.13 4.57 ± 1.01 4.86 ± 1.19 < 0.05g
HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.34 ± 0.46 1.38 ± 0.38 1.37 ± 0.34 1.43 ± 0.41 1.38 ± 0.37 NS
LDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) 2.31 ± 0.78 2.42 ± 0.79 2.53 ± 0.88 2.67 ± 0.86 2.90 ± 0.99 < 0.05h
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 0.92 ± 0.64 0.95 ± 0.72 1.00 ± 0.72 1.04 ± 0.70 1.31 ± 1.18 < 0.05a
Male gender (%) 49.0 46.9 42.7 39.6 36.9 0.034i
Statin users (%) 10.2 14.7 10.6 7.5 5.6 0.007i
Hypertriglyceridemia (%) 7.6 8.5 12.3 13.9 25.2 < 0.001i
Low HDL-cholesterol (%) 21.8 14.0 12.6 10.0 16.6 0.008i
High LDL-cholesterol (%) 31.6 34.2 40.4 50.0 57.2 < 0.001i
Microalbuminuria (%) 44.7 56.6 51.4 47.5 45.6 < 0.044i
Smokers (%) 4.7 6.6 4.7 2.4 6.7 NS
  1. a 5th quintile vs. all others; b 5th vs. 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 2nd vs. 4th quintiles; c 1st vs. all others, 2nd vs. 4th and 5th, 3rd vs. 5th quintiles; d 5th vs. 2nd, 3rd and 4th quintiles; e all pairwise comparisons; f 5th vs. all others; 1st vs. 3rd, 4th, 5th; 2nd vs. 4th quintile; g 1st vs. 4th and 5th; 2nd vs. 4th and 5th; 3rd vs. 5th quintiles; h 5th vs. 1st, 2nd, and 3rd; 4th vs. 1st quintiles; i 4 degrees-of-freedom significance; NS non-significant.