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Table 4 Key studies assessing the risk of IR/new onset type 2 DM and control of DM in patients with COPD

From: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and glucose metabolism: a bitter sweet symphony

First author and year


Study design

Population studied


Feary et al.[3]; 2010


Cross-sectional study using computerized records from 311 primary care practices

n: 1,204,100 (Men-618,090 subjects-51.3%) age: 35–44 years-327,800 subjects (27.2%), 45–54 years-274,375 subjects (22.8%), 55–64 years-254,472 subjects (21.1%), 65–74 years-177,102 subjects (14.7%) and ≥75 years- 170,361 subjects (14.2%)

COPD had OR of 2.04 (95% CI 1.97-2.12) for the development of new onset type 2 DM.

Song et al.[134]; 2010


Prospective cohort study with a median follow up of 12.2 years

n:38,570 non-diabetic women mean age-:57.8 years(for patients with physician diagnosed COPD) mean BMI: 26.1 kg/m²(for patients with physician diagnosed COPD)

COPD had a multivariate adjuster RR of 1.38 (95% CI 1.14–1.67) for a new onset type 2 DM.


Data on BMI not provided


Bolton et al.[135]; 2007


Cross-sectional study

n: 56 patients (30 men) with non-hypoxemic COPD and 29 healthy subjects (15 men) mean age: 66.7 years for COPD patients and 62.9 years for healthy controls mean BMI: 25.7 kg/m² for COPD patients and 26.5 kg/m² for healthy subjects

Patients with COPD had greater levels of CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α sr I and sr II.

IR assessed by HOMA was 1.68 in COPD patients vs. 1.13 in healthy subjects.

Log10 IL-6 and BMI were found to be predictive for IR in stepwise regression analysis

Bayliss et al.[136]; 2011


Prospective cohort study in patients with established type 2 DM

2,332 develop chronic pulmonary disease exacerbation (women-1,244, 53.34%), 582 (women-318, 54.64%) developed cancer and 2,959 developed depression (women-1,670, 56.44%) mean age at index date: 62.04 years for depression, 63.2 years for chronic pulmonary disease exacerbation and 65.53 years for cancer mean BMI: 31.09 kg/m² for cancer, 32.01 kg/m² for depression and 32.45 kg/m² for chronic pulmonary disease exacerbation

The researchers did not find any effect of chronic pulmonary disease exacerbation, depression and cancer on the glycated hemoglobin.

  1. Abbreviations: BMI : Body Mass Index; CI : Confidence Interval; COPD : Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; CRP : C-Reactive Protein; DM: Diabetes Mellitus; HOMA : Homeostatic Model Assessment; IL-6 : Interleukin-6; OR : Odds Ratio; RR : Relative Risk; sr: Soluble Receptor.