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Table 3 Odds ratio (95% CI) for type 2 diabetes according to quartiles of sex hormone and SHBG levels by sex

From: Associations of sex hormone-binding globulin and testosterone with diabetes among men and women (the Saku Diabetes study): a case control study

Men Quartiles
  Q1 (lowest) Q2 Q3 Q4 (highest) P for trend*
Testosterone (ng/mL)
Median (range) 3.04 (0.06–3.84) 4.42 (3.85–4.88) 5.44 (4.90–6.20) 6.96 (6.21–12.80)  
(cases/controls) 69/39 54/55 49/56 43/64  
Model 1† 1.00 0.55 (0.31–0.98) 0.48 (0.27–0.84) 0.37 (0.21–0.66) <0.001
Model 2‡ 1.00 0.72 (0.38–1.37) 0.62 (0.32–1.20) 0.44 (0.23–0.84) 0.01
Model 3§ 1.00 0.66 (0.34–1.29) 0.64 (0.33–1.26) 0.45 (0.23–0.89) 0.03
Model 4|| 1.00 0.64 (0.32–1.30) 0.63 (0.29–1.34) 0.40 (0.18–0.88) 0.03
SHBG (nmol/L)
Median (range) 42.1 (16.8–52.4) 62.2 (52.5–72.4) 81.8 (72.5–93.6) 112.0 (93.8–161.0)  
(cases/controls) 58/50 55/54 55/52 47/59  
Model 1† 1.00 0.87 (0.50–1.51) 0.87 (0.50–1.54) 0.67 (0.38–1.18) 0.17
Model 2‡ 1.00 0.81 (0.43–1.51) 1.04 (0.55–2.00) 0.73 (0.38–1.40) 0.44
Model 3§ 1.00 0.85 (0.44–1.64) 1.15 (0.59–2.24) 0.79 (0.41–1.53) 0.59
Model 4|| 1.00 1.04 (0.52–2.10) 1.55 (0.73–3.27) 1.22 (0.56–2.67) 0.54
Women
Testosterone (ng/mL)
Median (range) 0.08 (0.04–0.10) 0.13 (0.11–0.15) 0.19 (0.16–0.22) 0.27 (0.23–0.48)  
(cases/controls) 20/24 19/22 22/21 21/14  
Model 1† 1.00 1.09 (0.49–2.47) 1.33 (0.55–3.17) 1.83 (0.76–4.40) 0.17
Model 2‡ 1.00 0.76 (0.22–2.69) 1.05 (0.29–3.81) 1.90 (0.54–6.68) 0.27
Model 3§ 1.00 0.72 (0.20–2.62) 0.97 (0.25–3.79) 2.02 (0.54–7.54) 0.25
Model 4|| 1.00 0.74 (0.13–4.09) 2.82 (0.36–22.10) 9.20 (0.80–105.15) 0.046
SHBG (nmol/L)
Median (range) 49.5 (12.9–60.8) 76.6 (61.3–89.4) 105.0 (89.5–124.0) 139.5 (125.0–163.0)  
(cases/controls) 33/10 20/22 20/23 12/30  
Model 1† 1.00 0.35 (0.13–0.91) 0.32 (0.13–0.78) 0.15 (0.05–0.40) <0.001
Model 2‡ 1.00 0.17(0.03–0.91) 0.19 (0.05–0.79) 0.12 (0.02–0.86) 0.03
Model 3§ 1.00 0.18 (0.03–0.98) 0.20 (0.05–0.87) 0.13 (0.02–0.96) 0.048
Model 4|| 1.00 0.21 (0.02–2.78) 0.23 (0.03–1.93) 0.03 (0.001–0.86) 0.06
  1. Data are ORs (95% CI). Abbreviations: SHBG, sex hormone-binding globulin; ORs, odds ratios; CI, confidence interval * P- values for trend are based on median levels in categories. † Model 1: stratified on matched pairs using conditional logistic regression models. ‡ Model 2: further adjusted for smoking status, physical activity, history of hypertension, family history of diabetes, alcohol use, menopausal status (women only), and BMI. § Model 3: further adjusted for the fatty liver index (quartiles). || Model 4: further adjusted for levels of fasting insulin (quartiles), testosterone (quartiles), and SHBG (quartiles) that were not examined as the primary independent variable.