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Table 5 Factors associated with absent pharmacotherapy in diabetic study participants with concomitant (diagnosed or unrecognized) hypertension or dyslipidemia

From: Personal attributes that influence the adequate management of hypertension and dyslipidemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. Results from the DIAB-CORE Cooperation

   Hypertension   Dyslipidemia
  N Without anti-hypertensive medication n (%) Unadjusted Adjusted for Age, Sex, BMI, MI, Stroke, Study N Without lipid lowering medication n (%) Unadjusted Adjusted for Sex, MI
  1048 226 (21.6) OR (95%CI) OR (95%CI) 636 396 (62.3) OR (95%CI) OR (95%CI)
Age in years
70-74 257 38 (14.8) Reference Reference 134 84 (62.7) Reference Reference
65-69 252 49 (19.4) 1.39 (0.87-2.21) 1.35 (0.83-2.19) 146 81 (55.5) 0.74 (0.46-1.20) 0.71 (0.43-1.16)
60-64 254 57 (22.4) 1.67 (1.06-2.62) 1.46 (0.90-2.35) 157 97 (61.8) 0.96 (0.60-1.55) 0.94 (0.57-1.54)
55-59 151 41 (27.2) 2.15 (1.31-3.53) 1.80 (1.06-3.05) 98 63 (64.3) 1.07 (0.62-1.84) 0.93 (0.53-1.63)
45-54 134 41 (30.6) 2.54 (1.54-4.20) 2.28 (1.34-3.90) 101 71 (70.3) 1.41 (0.81-2.45) 1.10 (0.62-1.95)
Sex
Male 563 153 (27.2) 2.11 (1.54-2.87) 2.11 (1.52-2.93) 362 246 (68.0) 1.75 (1.27-2.43) 2.02 (1.44-2.84)
Female 485 73 (15.1) Reference Reference 274 150 (54.7) Reference Reference
Smoking
Yes 150 46 (30.7) 1.80 (1.22-2.64) 1.40 (0.92-2.13) 115 80 (69.6) 1.49 (0.96-2.30) 1.30 (0.82-2.04)
No 880 174 (19.8) Reference Reference 510 309 (60.6) Reference Reference
BMI
> = 30 546 86 (15.8) Reference Reference 322 199 (61.8) Reference Reference
<30 500 139 (27.8) 2.06 (1.52-2.79) 1.98 (1.43-2.74) 312 195 (62.5) 1.03 (0.75-1.42) 0.89 (0.63-1.24)
Physical inactivity
Yes 757 160 (21.1) Reference Reference 461 298 (64.6) 1.42 (0.99-2.04) 1.49 (1.03-2.17)
No 280 64 (22.9) 1.11 (0.80-1.54) 1.10 (0.77-1.56) 167 94 (56.3) Reference Reference
School education
Low 811 168 (20.7) Reference Reference 499 308 (61.7) Reference Reference
High and middle 221 54 (24.4) 1.24 (0.87-1.76) 1.08 (0.74-1.58) 126 82 (65.1) 1.16 (0.77-1.74) 0.98 (0.64-1.50)
Income
Low 162 37 (22.8) Reference Reference 104 65 (62.5) Reference Reference
Middle 674 133 (19.7) 0.83 (0.55-1.26) 0.73 (0.47-1.14) 405 248 (61.2) 0.95 (0.61-1.48) 0.92 (0.58-1.47)
High 109 31 (28.4) 1.34 (0.77-2.34) 0.90 (0.49-1.65) 62 45 (72.6) 1.59 (0.80-3.15) 1.17 (0.57-2.39)
Myocardial infarction
Yes 107 8 (7.5) Reference Reference 89 34 (38.2) Reference Reference
No 934 217 (23.2) 3.75 (1.79-7.82) 3.65 (1.72 -7.75) 540 357 (66.1) 3.16 (1.99-5.01) 3.62 (2.25-5.82)
Stroke
Yes 81 7 (8.6) Reference Reference 48 29 (60.4) Reference Reference
No 960 219 (22.8) 3.12 (1.42-6.88) 3.45 (1.53-7.79) 585 366 (62.6) 1.10 (0.60-2.00) 0.99 (0.52-1.85)
Dyslipidemia Hypertension
Yes 530 109 (20.6) Reference Reference 530 322 (60.8) Reference Reference
No 426 97 (22.8) 1.14 (0.84-1.55) 1.15 (0.83-1.60) 105 74 (70.5) 1.54 (0.98-2.43) 1.71 (1.06-2.78)
Study
GNHIES98 228 65 (28.5) Reference Reference 155 102 (65.8) Reference Reference
CARLA 155 22 (14.2) 0.42 (0.24-0.71) 0.39 (0.22-0.69) 84 46 (54.8) 0.63 (0.37-1.08) 0.56 (0.32-0.98)
DHS 73 17 (23.3) 0.76 (0.41-1.41) 0.91 (0.47-1.74) - - - -
KORA 114 24 (21.1) 0.67 (0.39-1.14) 0.82 (0.46-1.45) 80 52 (65.0) 0.97 (0.55-1.70) 0.95 (0.53-1.72)
HNR 263 51 (19.4) 0.60 (0.40-0.92) 0.60 (0.39-0.93) 174 101 (58.1) 0.72 (0.46-1.13) 0.68 (0.42-1.08)
SHIP 215 47 (21.9) 0.70 (0.46-1.08) 0.73 (0.46-1.16) 143 95 (66.4) 1.03 (0.64-1.66) 1.08 (0.65-1.79)
  1. No pharmacotherapy for hypertension – Age, Sex, BMI, MI, Stroke, Study: ROC = 0.71, Hosmer-Lemeshow p-value = 0.46.
  2. No pharmacotherapy for dyslipidemia – Sex, MI: ROC = 0.64, Hosmer-Lemeshow p-value = 0.62.