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Table 4 Factors associated with high BP* and cholesterol^ in diabetic study participants with concomitant (diagnosed or unrecognized) hypertension or dyslipidemia

From: Personal attributes that influence the adequate management of hypertension and dyslipidemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. Results from the DIAB-CORE Cooperation

  Hypertension Dyslipidemia
  N BP > =140/90 Unadjusted Adjusted for Sex, BMI, Study N TC/HDL ratio > = 5 Unadjusted Adjusted for Sex, MI, Study
   n (%)     n (%)   
  1048 808 (77.1) OR (95%CI) OR (95%CI) 636 493 (77.5) OR (95%CI) OR (95%CI)
Age in years
70-74 257 202 (78.6) 1.45 (0.90-2.35) 1.48 (0.90-2.46) 134 101 (75.4) Reference Reference
65-69 252 201 (79.8) 1.56 (0.96-2.54) 1.70 (1.02-2.84) 146 105 (71.9) 0.84 (0.49-1.43) 0.83 (0.47-1.45)
60-64 254 196 (77.2) 1.34 (0.83-2.15) 1.33 (0.81-2.19) 157 126 (80.3) 1.33 (0.76-2.32) 1.28 (0.71-2.30)
55-59 151 113 (74.8) 1.18 (0.70-1.99) 1.13 (0.65-1.96) 98 79 (80.6) 1.36 (0.72-2.57) 1.23 (0.63-2.40)
45-54 134 96 (71.6) Reference Reference 101 82 (81.2) 1.41 (0.75-2.66) 1.33 (0.70-2.59)
Sex
Male 563 466 (82.8) 2.01 (1.50-2.69) 2.00 (1.47-2.72) 362 297 (82.0) 1.82 (1.25-2.65) 2.23 (1.49-3.33)
Female 485 342 (70.5) Reference Reference 274 196 (71.5) Reference Reference
BMI
> = 30 546 392 (71.8) Reference Reference 322 249 (77.3) Reference Reference
<30 500 414 (82.8) 1.89 (1.40-2.55) 1.75 (1.28-2.40) 312 242 (77.6) 1.01 (0.70-1.47) 0.82 (0.55-1.23)
Currently smoking
Yes 150 113 (75.3) Reference Reference 115 96 (83.5) 1.61 (0.94-2.74) 1.56 (0.88-2.75)
No 880 682 (77.5) 1.13 (0.75-1.69) 1.30 (0.84-1.99) 510 387 (75.9) Reference Reference
Physical inactivity
Yes 757 589 (77.8) 1.13 (0.82-1.55) 0.98 (0.70-1.38) 461 365 (79.2) 1.40 (0.93-2.11) 1.27 (0.82-1.98)
No 280 212 (75.7) Reference Reference 167 122 (73.1) Reference Reference
School education
Low 811 627 (77.3) 1.02 (0.72-1.46) 1.07 (0.73-1.55) 499 385 (77.2) Reference Reference
High and middle 221 170 (76.9) Reference Reference 126 99 (78.6) 1.09 (0.68-1.74) 1.00 (0.60-1.64)
Income
Low 162 124 (76.5) Reference Reference 104 81 (77.9) Reference Reference
Middle 674 521 (77.3) 1.04 (0.70-1.57) 0.86 (0.56-1.33) 405 306 (75.6) 0.88 (0.52-1.47) 0.84 (0.49-1.45)
High 109 86 (78.9) 1.15 (0.64-2.06) 0.98 (0.53-1.83) 62 52 (83.9) 1.48 (0.65-3.35) 1.12 (0.47-2.65)
Myocardial infarction
Yes 107 75 (70.1) Reference Reference 89 57 (64.0) Reference Reference
No 934 727 (77.8) 1.50 (0.96-2.33) 1.70 (1.06-2.70) 540 431 (79.8) 2.22 (1.37-3.59) 2.81 (1.69-4.69)
Stroke
Yes 81 59 (72.8) Reference Reference 48 38 (79.2) 1.11 (0.54-2.28) 1.19 (0.56-2.55)
No 960 742 (77.3) 1.27 (0.76-2.12) 1.63 (0.95-2.79) 585 453 (77.4) Reference Reference
Dyslipidemia Hypertension
Yes 530 410 (77.4) 1.09 (0.81-1.47) 1.01 (0.73-1.38) 530 408 (77.0) Reference Reference
No 426 323 (75.8) Reference Reference 105 85 (81.0) 1.27 (0.75-2.15) 1.32 (0.75-2.31)
Study
GNHIES98 228 195 (85.5) Reference Reference 155 135 (87.1) Reference Reference
CARLA 155 114 (73.6) 0.47 (0.28-0.79) 0.49 (0.29-0.83) 84 52 (61.9) 0.24 (0.13-0.46) 0.21 (0.11-0.40)
DHS 73 63 (86.3) 1.07 (0.50-2.29) 1.10 (0.51-2.39) - - - -
KORA 114 86 (75.4) 0.52 (0.30-0.91) 0.57 (0.32-1.02) 80 63 (78.8) 0.55 (0.27-1.12) 0.52 (0.25-1.07)
HNR 263 172 (65.4) 0.32 (0.20-0.50) 0.30 (0.19-0.47) 174 128 (73.6) 0.41 (0.23-0.74) 0.38 (0.21-0.69)
SHIP 215 178 (82.8) 0.81 (0.49-1.36) 0.84 (0.50-1.41) 143 115 (80.4) 0.61 (0.33-1.14) 0.63 (0.33-1.20)
  1. Uncontrolled hypertension – Sex, BMI, Study: ROC = 0.68, Hosmer-Lemeshow p-value = 0.78.
  2. Uncontrolled dyslipidemia – Sex, MI, Study: ROC = 0.69, Hosmer-Lemeshow p-value = 0.96.
  3. *BP > = 140/90 mm Hg.
  4. ^ ratio total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol > = 5.