Effect of ALA on the cardiac AMPK signalling pathway in OLETF rats. (A) Representative Western blots of LKB1. Quantification of cardiac LKB1 by Western blot analysis. (B) Western blot showing total (T) and phosphorylated (p) forms of AMPK and ACC in the hearts from each group. Quantification of the phosphorylation of each protein on Western blots. The densitometry value for each phospho-protein was normalized against total protein and the values are presented as arbitrary units (A.U.). Data are presented as the mean ± SEM. *p < 0.05 vs. LETO rats; †p < 0.05 vs. OLETF rats. (C) A Western blot showing the level of cardiac SREBP1 in each group. The total, cytosolic, and nuclear lysates were prepared from heart tissues. a-tubulin and lamin A were used as the control to verify identical protein loading. (D) A western blot showing the level of cardiac GLUT4 in each group. The total lysate, plasma membrane, and post-plasma membrane fraction were prepared from heart tissues. a-tubulin and Ponceau S dye staining was used as the control to verify identical protein loading.