Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Characteristics of control, metabolic syndrome, and diabetic men undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery

From: Impact of type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome on myocardial structure and microvasculature of men with coronary artery disease

Parameter Control Metabolic syndrome Diabetic
n 13 23 10
Age, years 66 ± 2 63 ± 2 66 ± 3
Left main stenosis > 50%, n (%) 6 (46%) 15 (65%) 3 (30%)
One vessel stenosis > 70%, n (%) 3 (23%) 6 (26%) 1 (10%)
Two vessel stenosis > 70%, n (%) 7 (54%) 11 (48%) 6 (60%)
Three vessel stenosis > 70%, n (%) 3 (23%) 5 (22%) 3 (30%)
Patients with occluded coronary artery, n (%) 5 (38%) 7 (30%) 5 (50%)
Coronary collaterals, Rentrop grade 2 or 3, n (%) 5 (38%) 12 (52%) 5 (50%)
Previous percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, n (%) 2 (15%) 4 (17%) 1 (10%)
Wall motion abnormality, n (%) 2 (15%) 2 (9%) 1 (10%)
Coronary grafts/patient, n 3.4 ± 0.3 3.4 ± 0.2 3.6 ± 0.2
BMI (kg/m2) 25.3 ± 0.8 30.1 ± 0.7* 30.2 ± 1.3†
BSA (m2) 1.93 ± 0.05 2.06 ± 0.03† 2.05 ± 0.06
Clinical risk factors    
   Pre-admission systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 127 ± 3 134 ± 3 133 ± 4
   Pre-admission diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 74 ± 2 76 ± 2 77 ± 3
   Previous hypertension, n (%) 7 (54%) 20 (87%) 8 (80%)
   Ever smoked, n (%) 7 (54%) 15 (65%) 6 (60%)
   Fasting plasma total cholesterol (mmol/L) 3.5 ± 0.2 3.7 ± 0.3 3.1 ± 0.2
   Fasting plasma LDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 2.1 ± 0.2 2.2 ± 0.2 1.7 ± 0.2
   Fasting plasma HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.03 ± 0.04 0.93 ± 0.05 0.88 ± 0.06
   Fasting plasma triglyceride (mmol/L) 1.08 ± 0.04 2.02 ± 0.21* 1.86 ± 0.26†
   Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L) 5.6 ± 0.2 5.9 ± 0.1 8.1 ± 0.5‡,§
   Fasting plasma insulin (pmol/L) 45 ± 11 84 ± 11* 149 ± 53‡
   β cell function from HOMA2-%B 65 ± 11 92 ± 9 67 ± 11
   Insulin sensitivity from HOMA2-%S 167 ± 22 90 ± 11‡ 65 ± 14‡
   Insulin resistance from HOMA2-IR 0.8 ± 0.2 1.5 ± 0.2* 2.5 ± 0.7‡
   Plasma CML (μmol/L) 2.0 ± 0.2 2.2 ± 0.1 2.2 ± 0.1
   Plasma LMWF (AU/mL) 2.6 ± 0.2 2.6 ± 0.2 2.8 ± 0.3
   Plasma soluble RAGE (pg/mL) 604 ± 96 642 ± 60 753 ± 108
   Plasma NT-proBNP (pmol/L) 16 ± 4 14 ± 2 24 ± 6
   Hb (g/L) 14.4 ± 0.3 14.8 ± 0.3 13.3 ± 0.6||
   Plasma creatinine (μmol/L) 91 ± 4 91 ± 4 105 ± 4†,||
   eGFR (mL/min per 1.73 m2) 74 ± 4 76 ± 3 63 ± 3†,||
   C-reactive protein (mg/L) 2.7 ± 0.9 5.5 ± 2.2 3.6 ± 1.2
Medications    
   ACE inhibitor therapy, n (%) 5 (38%) 11 (48%) 8 (80%)
   ARB therapy, n (%) 2 (15%) 8 (35%) 1 (10%)
   ACEI and/or ARB therapy, (%) 7 (54%) 18 (78%) 9 (90%)
   Statin therapy, n (%) 11 (85%) 20 (87%) 9 (90%)
   Aspirin therapy, n (%) 7 (54%) 14 (61%) 5 (50%)
   Calcium antagonist therapy, n (%) 2 (15%) 6 (26%) 2 (20%)
   β-blocker therapy, n (%) 11 (85%) 15 (65%) 7 (70%)
   Long-acting nitrate therapy, n (%) 1 (8%) 4 (17%) 5 (50%)
   Thiazide or indapamide therapy, n (%) 3 (23%) 4 (17%) 3 (30%)
  1. Data shown as means ± SEM or n (%). *p < 0.01; †p < 0.05; ‡p < 0.001 in comparison with control; §p < 0.001; ||p < 0.05 in comparison with metabolic syndrome. One metabolic syndrome patient with left main stenosis > 50% did not have other vessel stenosis > 70%. Coronary collaterals were scored according to Rentrop et al. [48]. ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; CML, Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study equation [28]; HOMA, Homeostasis Model Assessment calculator version 2.2 [29]; LMWF, low molecular weight fluorophore; NT-proBNP, amino-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide; RAGE, receptor for advanced glycation end-products.