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Table 1 Demographic and Baseline Data

From: Double-blind, randomized, multicentre, and active comparator controlled investigation of the effect of Pioglitazone, Metformin, and the combination of both on cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving stable basal insulin therapy: the PIOCOMB study

Baseline Parameter Items Total; n = 121 Metformin n = 42 Pioglitazone n = 40 MET + PIO n = 39
Sex Male (%) 74 (61.2) 23 (54.8) 25 (62.5) 26 (66.7)
  Female (%) 47 (38.8) 19 (45.2) 15 (37.5) 13 (33.3)
Age [years] Mean (SD) 63.0 (7.5) 64.2 (7.3) 61.5 (7.1) 63.3 (7.9)
Weight [kg] Mean (SD) 92.5 (17.3) 89.4 (13.8) 91.9 (16.2) 96.6 (20.9)
BMI [kg/m2] Mean (SD) 32.2 (5.3) 31.8 (5.0) 31.7 (4.3) 33.1 (6.4)
Duration of Diabetes Type 2 in [years] Mean (SD) 11.1 (6.2) 12.3 (6.8) 9.8 (5.8) 11.0 (5.7)
  Median 10.0 11.0 8.0 10.0
  Range 1.0 - 31.5 3.0 - 31.5 1.0 - 28.0 1.3 - 29.0
SBP [mmHg] Mean (SD) 137.5 (14.0) 138.8 (16.1) 137.0 (10.7) 136.5 (14.9)
DBP [mmHg] Mean (SD) 78.1 (8.4) 78.5 (10.1) 77.5 (7.5) 78.2 (7.2)
FBG [mmol/L] Mean (SD) 8.35 (2.17) 8.01 (1.96) 8.83 (2.52) 8.22 (1.95)
Insulin units Mean (SD) 36.3 (20.9) 36.3 (20.1) 37.7 (22.9) 34.9 (19.9)
HbA1C [%] Mean (SD) 7.34 (0.53) 7.35 (0.53) 7.33 (0.53) 7.34 (0.54)
MMP-9 [ng/mL] Mean (SD) 566.0 (266.2) 589.7 (309.1) 530.9 (226.4) 576.5 (257.1)
hs-CRP [mg/L] Mean (SD) 4.19 (4.14) 4.77 (4.91) 3.98 (3.43) 3.76 (3.93)
hs-CRP ≤ 10 [mg/L]; Mean (SD) 3.21 (2.54) 3.17 (2.37) 3.41 (2.87) 3.05 (2.39)
Creatinine [mg/dL] Mean (SD) 0.84 (0.19) 0.81 (0.19) 0.86 (0.17) 0.86 (0.22)
Conc. BP-lower. ther. n (%) 106 (87.6) 39 (92.9) 37 (92.5) 30 (76.9)
Conc. lipid-lower. ther. n (%) 59 (48.8) 22 (52.4) 19 (47.5) 18 (46.2)
Conc. hypertension n (%) 104 (86.0) 37 (88.1) 36 (90.0) 31 (79.5)
Conc. CHD n (%) 23 (19.0) 13 (31.0) 7 (17.5) 3 (7.7)
  1. Percentages are based on the total number of patients per group; SD: standard deviation; BMI: body mass index; SBP: systolic blood pressure; DBP: diastolic blood pressure; FBG: fasting blood glucose; HbA1C: haemoglobin A1c; MMP-9: matrix metallo proteinase-9; conc.: concomitant; lower.: lowering; ther.: therapy; CHD: coronary heart disease.