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Table 4 Fasting plasma concentrations of lipid metabolites, hormones and inflammatory markers in diabetic pigs fed saturated fat/cholesterol or unsaturated fat or starch enriched diets

From: Dietary saturated fat/cholesterol, but not unsaturated fat or starch, induces C-reactive protein associated early atherosclerosis and ectopic fat deposition in diabetic pigs

  Saturated fat plus cholesterol diet Unsaturated fat diet Starch diet
NEFA (mmol/L) 1.09 ± 0.17A 0.80 ± 0.14AB 0.58 ± 0.14B
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 0.58 ± 0.17 0.51 ± 0.05 0.43 ± 0.11
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 9.9 ± 1.2A 2.0 ± 0.1 B 1.7 ± 0.2 B
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 2.1 ± 0.2A 0.4 ± 0.0 B 0.5 ± 0.0 B
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 3.3 ± 0.3A 1.3 ± 0.1 B 1.1 ± 0.1 B
VLDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.5 ± 0.8A 0.2 ± 0.1 B 0.1 ± 0.0 B
Ratio HDL/LDL cholesterol 0.64 ± 0.08 0.35 ± 0.05 0.46 ± 0.03
Ratio HDL/total cholesterol 0.21 ± 0.01A 0.23 ± 0.02A 0.29 ± 0.01 B
Glucagon (pmol/L) 131 ± 25 114 ± 35 83 ± 10
Cortisol (nmol/L) 334 ± 44 284 ± 69 262 ± 50
Haptoglobin (pg/mL) 251 ± 132 394 ± 100 236 ± 52
IL-6 (pg/mL) 2224 ± 1102 818 ± 664 459 ± 270
TNF-α (pg/mL) 610 ± 289 394 ± 248 384 ± 135
  1. A, B , data with different superscripts in the same row differ at p < 0.05.