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Table 2 Heart rate variability (HRV) in time and frequency domain between non-T2D and T2D resistant hypertension patients

From: Relationship of autonomic imbalance and circadian disruption with obesity and type 2 diabetes in resistant hypertensive patients

HRV variable Non-T2D group (n = 15) T2D group (n = 10) p-value
24 hour-SDNN * 131.5 ± 9.9 [110 - 152,9] 89.1 ± 6.2 [74.9 - 103.3] 0.00
Day time SDNN * 78.5 ± 6.4 [64.7 - 92.3] 58.2 ± 4.3 [48.5 - 67.9] 0.03
Night time SDNN 104.7 ± 11.1 [80.8 -128.5] 84.7 ± 12.0 [57.6 - 111.8] 0.21
24 hour-SDANN * 122.9 ± 10.2 [101.0 - 144.8] 79.8 ± 5.4 [67.6 - 92.0] 0.00
Day time SDANN * 65.5 ± 6.5 [51.5 - 79.4] 47.8 ± 3.5 [39.7 - 55.9] 0.03
Night time SDANN 73.2 ± 10.7 [50.1 - 96.3] 67.3 ± 11.0 [42.3 - 92.3] 0.80
24 hour-pNN50 * 5.3 ± 1.6 [1.8 - 8.9] 1.8 ± 0.6 [0.3 - 3.3] 0.05
Day time pNN50 * 2.6 ± 0.7 [0.9 - 4.2] 0.5 ± 0.1 [0.1 - 0.8] 0.04
Night time pNN50 * 12.4 ± 4.7 [2.3 - 22.5] 4.2 ± 1.6 [0.5 - 7.9] 0.04
24 hour-rMSSD 27.4 ± 4.0 [18.7 - 36.1] 19.7 ± 3.6 [11.6 - 27.8] 0.17
Day time rMSSD * 19.8 ± 2.2 [14.9 - 24.7] 13.8 ± 1.9 [9.5 - 18.1] 0.05
Night time rMSSD 37.3 ± 8.2 [19.6 - 55.0] 27.8 ± 6.1 [14.0 - 41.6] 0.21
Day time LF nu 22.5 ± 3.2 [15.4 - 29.5] 25.7 ± 7.1 [9.6 - 41.8] 0.97
Night time LF nu 51.0 ± 7.1 [35.8 - 66.3] 47.1 ± 7.3 [30.5 - 63.8] 0.80
Day time HF nu 77.5 ± 3.2 [70.4 - 84.5] 74.2 ± 7.1 [58.1 - 90.3] 0.97
Night time HF nu 48.9 ± 7.1 [33.6 - 64.1] 52.8 ± 7.3 [36.2 - 69.4] 0.80
  1. The values are expressed as means ± standard error of the mean; [95% confidence interval]; (*) Statistical significance (p < 0.05). SDNN (ms): Standard deviation of all normal RR intervals in 24-hour Holter recording; SDANN (ms): Standard deviation of means of RR intervals in all 5-minute segments of 24-hour recording; pNN50 (%): Percentage of differences between successive RR intervals that are greater than 50 ms; rMSSD (ms): Square root of the mean of the squares of differences between successive RR intervals; LF nu: Low frequency in normalized units from the power spectra of HRV by computer analysis using Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT); HF nu: High frequency in normalized units from the power spectra of HRV by computer analysis using FFT; Non-T2D: non type 2 diabetes resistant hypertension; T2D: type 2 diabetes resistant hypertension.