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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the participants according to the insulin stratification

From: Elevated fasting insulin predicts the future incidence of metabolic syndrome: a 5-year follow-up study

  I(≤6.01)
(n = 592)
II (6.02-7.29)
(n = 585)
III(7.30-8.97)
(n = 588)
IV(≥8.98)
(n = 585)
p-value
Age(yr)
Male %
41.9 ± 6.3
75.5
42.0 ± 6.4
74.2
40.7 ± 6.2
73.8
40.7 ± 6.0
74.2
< 0.001
0.915
Life style      
   Alcohol consumption (g/day) 12.6 ± 14.8 12.4 ± 16.9 11.3 ± 15.5 11.8 ± 14.8 0.206
   Smoking % (No/Ex/Current) 47.1/18.6/34.3 51.3/20.3/28.4 49.0/23/28.1 42.6/26.8/30.6 0.003
Exercise %
(none/less than once per week/more than once per week)
21.6/31.6/46.8 22.9/33.5/43.6 24.1/39.6/36.2 25/42.7/32.3 < 0.001
BMI(kg/m2) 22.7 ± 2.4 23.1 ± 2.5 23.8 ± 2.5 24.8 ± 2.8 0.018
Waist circumference (cm) 78.4 ± 8.2 79.1 ± 8.1 80.9 ± 8.1 83.7 ± 8.8 < 0.001
Systolic BP (mmHg) 112.9 ± 12.6 113.4 ± 12.4 114.5 ± 13.8 115.6 ± 13.6 < 0.001
Diastolic BP mmHg) 73.2 ± 9.6 73.4 ± 9.6 73.8 ± 10.1 74.5 ± 10.1 0.022
Fasting glucose (mg/dl) 87.4 ± 8.0 89.0 ± 7.9 90.9 ± 8.1 91.6 ± 7.6 < 0.001
Triglyceride (mg/dl) 112.4 ± 61.2 121.0 ± 64.3 135.2 ± 70.3 154.2 ± 82.6 < 0.001
HDL-cholesterol(mg/dl) 58.7 ± 11.8 58.2 ± 11.6 56.8 ± 11.6 55.3 ± 11.2 < 0.001
LDL-cholesterol(mg/dl) 117.2 ± 30.0 118.6 ± 30.0 119.6 ± 29.4 124.3 ± 31.0 < 0.001
hs-CRP(mg/L) 0.82 ± 1.16 0.78 ± 1.18 0.92 ± 1.46 1.15 ± 1.87 0.04
  1. Values expressed as n (%) or mean ± standard deviation (by Student t -test)
  2. BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pressure; hs-CRP, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein; MS, metabolic syndrome; DM, diabetes mellitus