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Table 6 Courtesy [53] Factors that link clinical suspicions to insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and a proclivity to develop T2DM.

From: Intimal redox stress: Accelerated atherosclerosis in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Atheroscleropathy

I. Strong family history of diabetes mellitus.
II. High risk ethnic background (Aboriginal, Asian, Pacific Islander, Hispanic, African American, Native American Indian).
III. Obesity (visceral, omental). Phenotypic changes of abdominal obesity: waist/hip ratio equal or greter than 1 in males and equal or greter than 0.8 in females.
IV. Gestational diabetes.
V. Macrosomia.
VI. Multiparity.
VII. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
VIII Impaired glucose tolerance. Two-hour postprandial blood sugar ranging from 140 to 199 mg/dL after 75 gram OGTT
IX. Impaired fasting glucose : 110–125 mg/dL.
X. Aging.
XI. Hypertension.
XII. Dyslipidemia. The lipid triad (increased VLDL, triglycerides, small dense LDL. Decreased HDL).