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Table 1 Atherosclerosis promoting effects of AGEs: Non-Receptor Mediated Mechanisms

From: How hyperglycemia promotes atherosclerosis: molecular mechanisms

Extracellular matrix
   Collagen cross linking [74]
   Enhanced synthesis of extracellular matrix components [10]
   Trapping of LDL in the subendothelium [75]
   Glycosylated subendothelial matrix quenches nitric oxide [76]
Functional alterations of regulatory proteins
   bFGF glycosylation reduces its heparin binding capacity and its mitogenic activity on endothelial cells [13]
   Inactivation of the complement regulatory protein CD59 [26]
Lipoprotein modifications
   Glycosylated LDL [19, 20]
   Reduced LDL recognition by cellular LDL receptors [21]
   Increased susceptibility of LDL to oxidative modification [19]