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Table 1 Atherosclerosis promoting effects of AGEs: Non-Receptor Mediated Mechanisms

From: How hyperglycemia promotes atherosclerosis: molecular mechanisms

Extracellular matrix

   Collagen cross linking [74]

   Enhanced synthesis of extracellular matrix components [10]

   Trapping of LDL in the subendothelium [75]

   Glycosylated subendothelial matrix quenches nitric oxide [76]

Functional alterations of regulatory proteins

   bFGF glycosylation reduces its heparin binding capacity and its mitogenic activity on endothelial cells [13]

   Inactivation of the complement regulatory protein CD59 [26]

Lipoprotein modifications

   Glycosylated LDL [19, 20]

   Reduced LDL recognition by cellular LDL receptors [21]

   Increased susceptibility of LDL to oxidative modification [19]