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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of each study set

From: A novel 6-metabolite signature for prediction of clinical outcomes in type 2 diabetic patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention

Variablesa Nested case–control study Prospective cohort study
Discovery set Internal validation set External validation set
MACEs (n = 54) Controls (n = 54) Pa MACEs (n = 54) Controls (n = 54) Pa With MACEs (n = 47) Without MACEs (n = 254) Pa
Clinical data
 Age, years 63.4 ± 9.5 63.1 ± 9.5 0.86 63.9 ± 9.0 64.5 ± 10.6 0.78 62.3 ± 9.5 62.8 ± 9.4 0.71
 Male 33 (61.1) 35 (64.8) 0.69 32 (59.3) 34 (63.0) 0.69 30 (63.8) 146 (57.5) 0.42
 Current smokers 11 (20.4) 11 (20.4) 1.00 10 (18.5) 12 (22.2) 0.63 17 (36.2) 53 (20.9) 0.023
 BMI, kg/m2, 25.6 ± 4.0 25.3 ± 4.3 0.73 25.1 ± 4.5 25.4 ± 3.6 0.75 25.2 ± 3.9 25.0 ± 4.1 0.75
 FPG, mmol/L 8.8 ± 2.1 8.4 ± 1.9 0.24 8.4 ± 2.1 8.8 ± 2.1 0.37 8.2 ± 2.3 8.4 ± 2.1 0.72
 HbA1c, (%) 7.6 ± 1.8 7.3 ± 1.5 0.33 7.2 ± 1.7 7.8 ± 2.3 0.15 8.1 ± 1.9 7.4 ± 1.7 0.020
 Diabetes duration, years 9.2 ± 5.1 10.0 ± 4.8 0.39 9.9 ± 5.4 9.0 ± 4.9 0.36 9.5 ± 5.6 10.0 ± 5.4 0.58
 Diabetes management
  Lifestyle modification 12 (22.2) 18 (33.3) 0.55 15 (27.8) 17 (31.5) 0.95 14 (29.8) 87 (34.3) 0.34
  Oral agents only 13 (24.1) 11 (20.4)   18 (33.3) 16 (29.6)   12 (25.5) 80 (31.5)  
  Insulin only 16 (29.6) 16 (29.6)   11 (20.4) 10 (18.5)   10 (21.3) 53 (20.9)  
  Oral agents and insulin 13 (24.1) 9 (16.7)   10 (18.5) 11 (20.4)   11 (23.4) 34 (13.4)  
 PAD 8 (14.8) 9 (16.7) 0.79 7 (13.0) 8 (14.8) 0.78 6 (12.8) 25 (9.8) 0.55
 Dyslipidemia 15 (27.8) 13 (24.1) 0.66 12 (22.2) 12 (22.2) 1.00 10 (21.3) 62 (24.4) 0.64
 Hypertension 20 (37.0) 22 (40.7) 0.69 19 (35.2) 20 (37.0) 0.84 23 (48.9) 111 (43.7) 0.51
 LVEF < 50% 11 (20.4) 8 (14.8) 0.45 9 (16.7) 10 (18.5) 0.80 11 (23.4) 27 (10.6) 0.015
 Clinical Presentation
  ACS 35 (64.8) 37 (68.5) 0.68 34 (63.0) 36 (66.7) 0.69 30 (63.8) 137 (53.9) 0.21
  SCAD 19 (35.2) 17 (31.5)   20 (37.0) 18 (33.3)   17 (36.2) 117 (46.1)  
Angiographic data
 Chronic total occlusion 7 (13.0) 7 (13.0) 1.00 7 (13.0) 9 (16.7) 0.59 9 (19.1) 40 (15.7) 0.56
 Multivessel CAD 35 (64.8) 36 (66.7) 0.84 32 (59.3) 35 (64.8) 0.55 37 (78.7) 158 (62.2) 0.029
 Calcification 8 (14.8) 10 (18.5) 0.61 7 (13.0) 8 (14.8) 0.78 9 (19.1) 36 (14.2) 0.38
 ACC/AHA lesion B/C 36 (66.7) 36 (66.7) 1.00 37 (68.5) 35 (64.8) 0.68 30 (63.8) 165 (65.0) 0.88
 SYNTAX score 22.9 ± 8.5 22.7 ± 9.3 0.91 24.6 ± 7.7 24.2 ± 9.0 0.81 21.7 ± 7.3 22.4 ± 8.5 0.63
Procedure data
 Stent diameter, mm 3.1 ± 0.4 3.0 ± 0.4 0.33 3.2 ± 0.4 3.1 ± 0.4 0.74 3.1 ± 0.5 3.1 ± 0.6 0.99
 Stent length, mm 32.9 ± 17.4 34.3 ± 17.4 0.64 34.5 ± 14.7 31.7 ± 10.8 0.27 31.1 ± 14.5 35.0 ± 20.5 0.22
 Complete revascularization 21 (38.9) 21 (38.9) 1.00 17 (31.5) 18 (33.3) 0.84 13 (27.7) 81 (31.9) 0.57
 Stent type
  First generation DES 36 (66.7) 39 (72.2) 0.53 36 (66.7) 34 (63.0) 0.69 31 (66.0) 169 (66.5) 0.94
  Second generation DES 18 (33.3) 15 (27.8)   18 (33.3) 20 (37.0)   16 (34.0) 85 (33.5)  
  1. MACEs major adverse cardiovascular event; BMI body mass index; FPG fasting plasma glucose; HbA1c glycosylated haemoglobin; PAD peripheral artery disease; LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction; ACS acute coronary syndrome; SCAD stable coronary artery disease; DES drug-eluting stent
  2. aValues are mean ± SD or n (%) as appropriate. P values are obtained from the student t test for continuous variables, and the Pearson χ2 test for categorical variables