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Table 2 Multivariate association (HR [95% CI]) of all 5 baseline liver markers with CV and renal outcomes

From: Liver function markers predict cardiovascular and renal outcomes in the CANVAS Program

  HF CV death HF or CV death All deaths MACE Renal endp.a
Log [baseline]
ALT [U/L] 0.53 [0.34–0.84] 0.67 [0.47–0.97] 0.59 [0.44–0.79] 0.57 [0.43–0.76] 1.04 [0.81–1.32] 0.94 [0.72–1.23]
AST [U/L] 1.36 [0.79–2.29] 1.00 [0.63–1.55] 1.16 [0.81–1.64] 1.30 [0.91–1.85] 0.89 [0.66–1.19] 0.91 [0.66–1.25]
ALP [U/L] 1.11 [0.71–1.74] 1.26 [0.91–1.75] 1.15 [0.87–1.51] 1.22 [0.93–1.59] 1.21 [0.97–1.50] 1.21 [0.95–1.53]
γGT [U/L] 1.51 [1.21–1.86] 1.22 [1.03–1.44] 1.34 [1.17–1.53] 1.24 [1.08–1.42] 1.12 [1.00–1.26] 1.00[0.88–1.13]
Bilirubin [µM] 1.18 [0.88–1.60] 0.95 [0.75–1.20] 1.04 [0.86–1.26] 0.87 [0.72–1.06] 1.06 [0.91–1.25] 1.01 [0.87–1.19]
  1. Table entries are hazard ratios (HR) adjusted for sex, age, diabetes duration, body mass index, HbA1C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, estimated glomerular filtration rate, albumin/creatinine ratio, systolic blood pressure, serum albumin, cigarette smoking, prior CV disease, history of HF, and use of loop and/or non-loop diuretics, renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system inhibitors, statins, antithrombotics or beta-blockers. Statistically significant estimates are in bold
  2. ALT alanine aminotransferase; AST aspartic aminotransferase; γGT gamma-glutamyl transferase; ALP alkaline phosphatase; CV cardiovascular; HF hospitalized heart failure; MACE major adverse cardiovascular events
  3. aRenal endp. = composite of a > 40% decline in eGFR, renal replacement, renal death, and progression to macroalbuminuria